Why is Islam so confused

Sura 42 verse 13A Shiite view of the Koran

"He has ordained you as a religion, what he commanded Noah, what was revealed to you and what we commanded Abraham, Moses and Jesus."

The basic idea behind this verse is that the message of Muhammad is similar to that of the great prophets before him and that the prophet of Islam, like his predecessors, has met with resistance from the unbelievers in his people.

The Koran series is explained as a multimedia presentation

The standard edition of the Koran that is still valid today is called the "Codex of the Uthmân". Uthman was the third caliph. According to the beliefs of the Shiites, the second major denomination in Islam alongside the Sunnis, during the first three or four centuries of Islam, numerous followers of the Shiites assumed that this official version of the Koran was a censored and falsified edition of the revelations to the prophet Mohammed has been. According to them, there is much evidence of this in the source literature.

Mohammad-Ali Amir Moezzi is professor at the "École pratique des hautes études", which belongs to the world-famous Sorbonne in Paris. (priv.) According to this point of view, the "original Koran" was three times as extensive as the official one. It was also arranged in the chronological order of the revelations.

‘Alî Ibn Abû Tâlib was the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Mohammed. At the same time he was his confidante and father of the only male heir and legitimate successor of Muhammad. According to this point of view, it was Alî alone who owned the original and unabridged version of the Koran.

Just as the pre-Koranic holy scriptures name their messengers and their contemporaries, this 'real Koran' is also said to have frequently mentioned Mohammed, his family, his friends or enemies by name.

Numerous passages were therefore dedicated to ‘Alî, his wife Fâtima - that is, Muhammad's daughter -, their two sons Hasan and Husain and the 'walâya' of‘ Alî and his descendants. These are all those who swore friendship and loyalty to ‘Alî and his descendants, which made them true spiritual and at the same time earthly leaders of the believers.

After the death of the Prophet Mohammed, however, ‘Alî's enemies and his family's enemies came to power. They oppressed the members of the Prophet's family - in Arabic: ahl al-bayt - and their followers.

According to the old Shiite sources, on the basis of this betrayal, the first caliphs quickly proceeded to delete what they thought were “harmful” parts of the Koran. This applies in particular to the places that represent ‘Alî and his descendants as allies of God, and for the places that condemn the enemies of‘ Alî and his descendants who have now come to power. So it happened that a large number of text passages were deleted from the Koran. This also includes those that contained the names of contemporaries of Muhammad.

In order to cover up their actions, the caliphs, actually the members of the Umayyad dynasty, completely mixed up the chronological order of the revelations of the Koran.

These interventions helped to give the Qur'an its fragmentary, disjointed character, with many hard-to-understand parts in which the life of Muhammad and his contemporaries, with a few insignificant exceptions, was completely absent.

‘Alî and his descendants kept the original edition of the Koran hidden as a precaution. According to the Shiite tradition, it is only revealed again at the end of days, when the eschatological redeemer comes.

Nevertheless, hundreds of verses have been handed down in Shiite source texts that are supposed to belong to this "Codex of the‘ Alî "and that are different from the official version of the Koran.

We'll hear examples of this next week.