Are Berbers of Arab origin

Berber

(Arabic barbarī, pl. barābir / barābira, own designation a.a. amazigh or amahagh), name of Greek origin for population groups primarily resident in North Africa, unexplained histor. Origin, whose settlement areas extend from the Siwa oasis in Egypt over the Atlantic coast to the Niger Arch. The Tuareg (Arabic. Ṭawāriq) of the southern Sahara also belong to the B. The B. speak local variants of a language usually called tamazight or tamahaqq, are in Arabic. However, the language area is often bilingual or completely Arabic. Their Islamization began with the arab. Conquest of the Maghreb during the second half of the 7th century. At the beginning of the 8th century, soldiers carried Berbers. Ancestry is crucial to the success of the muslim. Conquering armies in North Africa and on the Iber. Peninsula at. The unequal treatment by arab. Muslims encouraged secession from the Sunni. Islam. While the Shiite that was prevalent at times in North Africa. Faith was completely eliminated under B., the kharijit could become. Assert Islam in some peripheral areas of the Maghreb to this day. Larger political units, such as the Almoravid dynasties (11th - 12th centuries) and the Almohads (12th - 13th centuries), were seldom formed by B. in their history. During the colonial penetration of the Maghreb, v. a. B. long-lasting resistance. While France in Morocco and Algeria - in both states they still represent a high proportion of the population - emphasized the ethnic differences between the population groups as part of a policy of "divide and rule", the independence movements emphasized the unifying bond of Islam. After regaining national independence, B.'s cultural and linguistic independence was viewed as a threat to national unity and suppressed in Morocco and Algeria. It was only since the 1990s that certain loosening of their restrictive policies towards B.'s cultural movements can be observed in both Maghreb states. In the north of west african. In Mali (Africa), there have been repeated armed conflicts between the central government and the Tuareg-B since independence.

Literature:
Brett, M./Fentress, E .: The Berbers, 1996. - Neumann, W .: The Berbers. Diversity and unity of an old North African culture, 1983. - Pfeifer, K .: «We are not Arabs!» Amazigh identity construction in Morocco, 2015.

Author:
Dr. Franz Kogelmann, University of Bayreuth, Islamic Studies

Source: Elger, Ralf / Friederike Stolleis (eds.): Kleines Islam-Lexikon. History - everyday life - culture. Munich: 6th, updated and expanded edition 2018.