Malayalam is widespread in Mangalore
Mangalore (Tulu: ಕುಡ್ಲ Kudla, Kannada: ಮಂಗಳೂರು Maṅgaḷūru), until 2014 Mangalore, is a major port city in the southwest Indian state of Karnataka with around 485,000 inhabitants.
620,000 people live in the metropolitan area (2011 census). Mangaluru is the capital of the Dakshina Kannada district (southern Kanara). The former city name 'Mangalore' [ˈmæŋɡəlɔːr] continues to be used in a variety of ways.
The name Mangaluru / Mangalore is said to have its origin in the Hindu patron goddess of the city, Mangaladevi. The Roman scholar Pliny the Elder already mentioned the mouth of the river “Nithrias”, Ptolemy that of the river “Nitre”. Most likely, both related to the Netravati.
The city is mentioned as Mangalapura in an inscription on a copper plate from the 7th century. Until the 14th century it was ruled by various dynasties such as the Kadamba, Chalukya, Alupa, Rashtrakuta and Hoysala. Little is known about their rule, however. In 1342 the Arab explorer Ibn Battuta visited the city.
From the 14th to the 16th century it belonged to the Vijayanagar Empire, whose rulers allowed the Portuguese to build a fortress in 1505. In 1568 the Portuguese took Mangalore and built a new fortress. The power of the colonial rulers began to crumble in the 17th century. Under Raja Shivappa Nayaka (1645–1660) of Keladi, the Portuguese had to tolerate his domination, but they regained strength after his death. After they forbade the Arabs to trade in Mangaluru, they burned the city down in 1695. In 1714 the Portuguese returned. They were finally driven out by Mysore King Hyder Ali in 1763. Shipbuilding gained enormous importance under him. However, Hyder Ali only determined the fate of the city for five years, then it was conquered by the British. From 1794 to 1799 it stood now Mangalore another five years under the sovereignty of Mysore, this time under Hyder Ali's son Tipu Sultan, and then finally passed into British possession. It remained there until India gained independence in 1947. Mangalore, now Mangaluru, has belonged to Karnataka since 1956.
On the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the state in 2006, the government of Karnataka decided on a proposal by the writer U. R. Ananthamurthy, the English name of the city in the Kannada name form Mangalore to change. The Indian central government under Prime Minister Manmohan Singh initially did not approve the name change. Only under the government of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, which was elected in 2014, did the renaming officially take effect on November 1, 2014, following confirmation by the German government.
The most widely spoken language is Tulu. Kannada is also widespread as a second or mother tongue; there are also minorities of Konkani and Malayalam speakers.
The religious composition of Mangaluru is similar to that of Kerala, because although the Hindus are by far the largest religious community, there are considerable Muslim and especially Catholic minorities.
Mangalore is the seat of the Mangalore diocese.
Typical of Mangaluru and its surroundings is Yakshagana, a kind of traditional dance theater in which scenes from Hindu mythology are mostly shown.
Mangaluru has been the seat of a university since 1980. The National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal (NITK) comes close to the rank of university. There are also several private colleges.
There are some regional sports that are very popular in Mangalore, such as: B. a bull race. But also chess, soccer, cricket and a variety of other sports.
Multiple conquests and destruction have left little of Mangaluro's rich historical legacy. Nevertheless, there are some architectural monuments that remind of the great historical importance.
- Kadri Manjunath Temple
- The Kerala-style Hindu temple from the 11th century houses a bronze statue of the goddess Lokeshwara, which is one of the finest bronze works in all of India.
- St. Aloysius College Chapel
- Built between 1899 and 1900, the church has an exceptionally beautiful interior decoration by the Italian artist Antonio Moscheni. Frescoes and paintings show, among other things, the life of Saint Aloisius von Gonzaga, who gave the church its name, as well as depictions of the Apostle Thomas, who is said to have introduced Christianity to India, of Saint Francis of Assisi and other saints. There are also biblical scenes.
- Mangaladevi Temple
- The city of Mangaluru owes its name to the temple dedicated to the goddess Mangaladevi. It dates from the 10th century.
- Sultan's Battery
- Today only a ruin, the black stone fortress still bears witness to the changeful history of Mangaluru. Tipu Sultan had it moored in the north of the city at the end of the 18th century to prevent warships - especially British ones - from entering the Gurpur River.
- Shri Sharavu Mahaganapathi Temple
- This temple, which is around 800 years old, is an important Hindu pilgrimage site in the center of Mangaluru.
Other noteworthy sights are the Sri Gokarnath Temple, the Rosario Cathedral, the Milagres Church and the Shrimati Bai Memorial Museum.
Economy & Infrastructure
Of great importance is the new seaport (New Mangalore Port) about 10 km north of the city center, which is one of the largest and most important in India. 75 percent of Indian coffee exports are processed here. Other important export products are cashew nuts and pepper. In 2004/05 33.89 million tons were handled, making Mangaluru sixth among the 12 main sea ports in India. The year-on-year growth was 27 percent, the highest of all 12 ports. In recent years, the port has always recorded double-digit growth rates.
The most important branches of industry in Mangaluru are the chemical, textile and electrotechnical industries, and the processing of agricultural products in the region also plays an important role. In Mangaluru there are an oil refinery.
Mangaluru also has an International Airport (former name: Bajpe Airport; IATA code: IXE), which is about 20 km outside the city center, near the city of Bajpe. There are daily flights to Mumbai and Bengaluru from there. On May 22, 2010, 158 people were killed when a plane coming from Dubai shot over the runway and caught fire; only a few inmates survived the disaster.
sons and daughters of the town
- Käte Schaller-Härlin (1877–1973), German painter
- Benegal Narsing Rau (1887–1953), lawyer, judge at the International Court of Justice
- Taranath Rao (1915-1991), tabla player
- Winnibald Joseph Menezes (1916–2002), Roman Catholic auxiliary bishop in Bombay
- George Fernandes (1930–2019), politician
- John Baptist Sequeira (1930–2019), Catholic Bishop of Chikmagalur
- Jay Ullal (* 1933), press and portrait photographer
- Percival Joseph Fernandez (* 1935), Roman Catholic auxiliary bishop in Bombay
- Alphonsus D’Souza (1939–2016), Roman Catholic Bishop of Raiganj
- Salvadore Lobo (* 1945), Roman Catholic Bishop of Baruipur
- Gerald Isaac Lobo (* 1949), Roman Catholic Bishop of Shinoga and Udupi
- Aishwarya Rai (* 1973), actress and Miss World 1994
Personalities related to the city
- Anant Agarwal (* 1959), Indian-American computer scientist, professor of electrical engineering and computer science at MIT
- Aravind Adiga (* 1974), writer
- ↑ Census of India 2011: Provisional Population Totals. Cities having population 1 lakh and above. (PDF; 154 kB)
- ↑ Census of India 2011: Provisional Population Totals. Urban Agglomerations / Cities having population 1 lakh and above. (PDF; 141 kB)
- ↑ p. Rajendran: Center mum on ‘Bengaluru’.The Hindu, December 18, 2007, accessed October 30, 2015.
- ↑ Mugdha Variyar: Bangalore, Mysore, Other Karnataka Cities to be Renamed on November 1. International Business Times, October 18, 2014, accessed October 30, 2015.
- ↑ Spiegel Online: Mangalore: machine shoots over the runway, May 22, 2010
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