Who was Aurangzeb
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Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir was the Mughal Mughal of India in the early 18th century AD.
As the son of Shah Jahan, he prevailed against his three brothers in a fratricidal war in 1658 after his father became seriously ill in September 1657. The main rival, his Hindu-friendly oldest brother Dara Schikoh and his two-year-old son were executed, a second brother was beaten to death as a prisoner, the third was driven into exile in Burma and the father Shah Jahan was imprisoned in Agra for the rest of his life. The seizure of power took place on July 31, 1658.
His three sons also rebelled against him and were temporarily imprisoned in prison. Aurangzeb forbade music at court, dismissed the painters and had only one important structure built, the Badschahi mosque in Lahore. In later years he appeared in a white robe and was often seen reading the Holy Qur'an.
Aurangzeb broke with the concept of approximate equality between Muslims and Hindus, which his father had already neglected. In 1669 he had Hindu temples all over the country destroyed - including the oldest Shiva temple in Benares, where a mosque was built. He replaced many Hindus in administration, especially in taxation and high military ranks, with Muslims. Finally, in 1679, he reintroduced the protection tax [jizya], which had once been abolished by Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar. In return, he freed the Hinus from military service.
However, the number of temples destroyed was very small compared to the total number and some of the destruction can be attributed to the effects of war, misuse, etc. Aurangzeb's measures to summarize and strengthen Islamic law [sharia] - among other things in the Fatawa-i-Alamgiri collection of laws - also indirectly benefited the Hindus, since the taxes now levied were lower than those before.
As the Commander in Chief of the Northwest Frontier, where it was around 1674 AD. had come to riots, called Raja Dschaswant Singh of Jodhpur died in 1678, the Aurangzeb encouraged the occupation of Jodhpurs, although an heir to the throne for the principality was born. This resulted in the defection of almost all Rajput families under the leadership of Mewar and took revenge in the Deccan campaigns against the Marathas. Although a makeshift peace was quickly concluded with the Rana of Mewar, the Rajputs remained in opposition to Aurangzeb until 1709. There were further uprisings from the Sikh.
From the spring of 1682, Aurangzeb led campaigns against the Marathas and the Muslim Deccan sultanates and left the north without its administrative head for 26 years. The result was corruption and the general dissolution of administrative structures, so that robbers could even pillage caravans near the capital. He succeeded in conquering Bijapur in 1686 and the Golkonda in 1687, which was considered impregnable, but the incorporation of South India into the imperial administration remained superficial. This was due not least to the guerrilla warfare of the Marathas, which Aurangzeb's army continuously attacked.
During Aurangzeb's reign, the rift between Hindus and Muslims widened. The administration of the empire was no longer in control of the uprisings, central India was almost impassable, the state was bankrupt and all artistic activities ceased. The peasants armed themselves and used force to defend themselves against the tax collectors. Aurangzeb died in Ahmadnagar on March 3, 1707, leaving behind a divided empire. His famous daughter was Zab Nisa. His successor was his second eldest son Bahadur Shah I.
Together with a team of artists, Johann Melchior Dinglinger created the world-famous work of art “Court of Delhi on the birthday of the Great Mogul Aurengzeb”.
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