How are Kashmiri women doing as wives

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Professor Dr. Sincerely dedicated to Ernst Klingmüller, 1st Chairman of the Society for Arabic and Islamic Law, on his 85th birthday.
1
The latter in particular in connection with questions of immigration law and citizenship matters. On the first IPG report 1996, No. 21 p. 286; OVG NW 7.3.1985, IPRax 1985, 351 with note Henrich; on the latter OVG NW 2.9.1996, StAZ 1997, 137 with note Gaaz; Hess. VGH judgment of May 18, 1998, 12 UE 1542/98 (unpublished): Withdrawal of the naturalization according to § 9 RuStAG of a Pakistani who had concealed in the naturalization procedure that he had a second marriage to a German in Pakistan while he was married local law has been received.
2
See also IPG 1982, No. 19 p. 195.
3
The North-West Province has its own law, the North-West Frontier Province Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1935.
4
See Pearl / Menski, Muslim Family Law (3rd ed. London 1998) pp. 29 and 48.
5
Muhamed Rashid Ahmed v. Mst. Nusrat Begum, Islamic Law Journal 1986, 230; see Pearl / Menski (fn. 4) p. 32 and fn. 16, p. 121, 126; on Ahmadiyas Pearl / Menski (fn. 4) pp. 32, 121ff., 126 with reference to Art. 260 (3) of the Pakistani constitution of 1973, which clearly lists the Ahmadis Baha'is as non-Muslims in letter (b). See also Tanzil ur-Rahman, A Code of Muslim Personal Law (Karachi 1978) vol. 1 p. 15ff.
6
Ch. M. Mahmood, The Manual of Family Laws (Lahore 1990) pp. 2ff .; Tanzil ur-Rahman (fn. 5) p. 38ff. To prevent marriages with children and child marriages (girls under 16 and boys under 18), the Child Marriage Restraint Act (XIX of 1929) provides penalties for adults who marry children or were involved in such marriages. This does not affect the validity of the marriage. See Mahmood, op. Cit., P. 240ff .; Weishaupt, Typical legal problems with marriages and divorces of Pakistani Muslims, StAZ 1998, 264f. If a girl under the age of 16 is married by her father or guardian, she has the right to dissolve the marriage when she reaches puberty, provided the marriage was not consummated afterwards. (Sec. (2) VII Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act, 1939).
7
Tanzil ur-Rahman (fn. 5) p. 14; Mahmood, supra note 6, p. 37; Patel, Islamization of Laws in Pakistan? (Karachi 1986) p. 126; Mehdi, The Islamization of Laws in Pakistan (Richmond 1994) p. 161.
8
Verma, Commentary on Mohammedan Law in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh (7th edition Allahabad 1997) p. 128.
9
Mahmood, supra note 6, p. 3; Verma, fn. 8, p. 118.
10
For preliminary work on the MFLO Mehdi (fn. 7) pp. 22f., 163.
11
On the legal and political goals of the law, see Syed Ali Nawaz Gardezi v. Lt. Col. Muhammad Yusuf, PLD 1963 p. C. 51 (74ff.); Pearl, Three Decades of Executive, Legislative and Judicial Amendments in Pakistan, in: Mallat / Connors, Islamic Family Law (London 1990) p. 322; Mahmood, supra note 6, p. 37.
12
See Pearl / Menski (fn. 4) pp. 259f.
13
See Pearl / Menski (fn. 4) pp. 269f.
14
So most recently the Lahore High Court in Naseem Akhtar v. Shaheen Kausar, PLD 1995 Lah. 475 (479); previously the Supreme Court in C. M. Samuel v. C. Samuel, PLD 1967 S.C. 334; also the Federal Shariat Court in Mian Dad v. The State, PLD 1983 FSC, 518; Zullay Khan v. Noor Muhammad, PLD 1986 Quetta, 290; Mahmood, supra note 6, p. 32; Pearl / Menski (fn. 4) p. 256. See also IPG report 1996, no. 21 p. 286.
15
Cf. Syed Ali Nawaz Gardezi v. Lt. Col. Muhammad Yusuf, PLD 1963 S.C. 51; Farani, Manual of Family Laws in Pakistan (Lahore 1997) pp. 26ff .; Mahmood, supra note 6, p. 47.
16 17
Like the first, the second wife is also regarded as an “affected” person in the sense of “Rule 21”, which was enacted within the framework of the W. P. Muslim Family Law Ordinance. See Mahmood (fn. 6) p. 39.
18
Poulter, English Law and Ethnic Minority Customs (London 1986) p. 53; left open by Farman Ali v. Abid Ali, PLD 1995 Lah. 364 (375); Pearl / Menski (fn. 4).
19
Cf. Matin, The Law on Cruelty to Women and Dissolution of Marriages (Dhaka 1992) p. 91; Abid, Manual of Family Laws in Pakistan (Lahore 1995) p. 178; Pearl / Menski (fn. 4) p. 261.
20
See also Hayat / Gill, The Manual of Family Laws (Lahore 1996) pp. 117 and 140; Farani (fn. 15) p. 126, there fn. 31.
21
Farani (fn. 15) pp. 146ff .; Hayat / Gill (footnote 20) pp. 140, 153; Mahmood (fn. 6) pp. 157, 164. On this inconsistency see also Pearl / Menski (fn. 4) p. 264.
22
Tanzil ur-Rahman (fn. 5) pp. 56ff .; Rauscher, Pakistani-Islamic marriages, StAZ 1985, 104. For the recognition of so-called glove marriages see VG Wiesbaden 12.9.1994, IPRspr. 1994, no.72.
23
The decision of the Peshawar High Court in Ghulam Kubra v. Mohammad Shafi, AIR 1940 Pesh. 2 (3rd).
24
See also Mahmood (fn. 6) p. 33. The validity of an unregistered Pakistani marriage was discussed by OLG Hamm July 29, 1991, StAZ 1991, 315, 318, but left open due to a lack of knowledge of the content of Pakistani law.
25
Mulla, Hindu Law (6th ed. Bombay 1990) p. 476; Jolly, Hindu Law and Custom (Calcutta 1928) p. 146; Trevelyan, Hindu Law as Administered in British India (Calcutta 1929) p. 39.
26 27
Text in Farani (fn. 15), p. 582.
28
A judge in Bangladesh, who was confronted with the question of the effectiveness of a Hindu marriage, remarked: “It is obvious that the nuptial rites in Hindu Shastra are so complicated that an exact observance of their details is not easy and is beyond the comprehension of the ordinary participants or the attendants of the ceremony. "Cf. Uptal Kanti Das v. Monju Rani Das, 17 BLD (AD) (1997), 289 (292).
29
Sec. 60 (2) Christian Marriage Act of 1872; Sec. 4 Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act of 1936.
30
Sec. 494 of the Pakistan Penal Code reads: »494 - Whoever, having a husband or wife living, marries in any case in which such marriage is void by reason of its taking place during the life of such husband or wife, shall be punished with imprisonment of Either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine. "
31
Naseem Akhtar v. Shaheen Kausar, PLD 1995 Lah. 475 (478).
32
See Diwan, Private International Law (3rd edition New Delhi 1993) p. 61 on the adoption of English IPR on the Indian subcontinent.
33
See Cheshire / North, Private International Law (11th edition, London 1987) p. 574.
34
See the decision of the Bombay High Court Khambatta v. Khambatta, 36 (1934) BomLR, 11 (14).
35
On general see Shah, Law and Religion in Constitutional Governance, PLD 1995 Journal, 90ff .; Shah, Islamization of Law in Pakistan, PLD 1995 Journal, 37ff .; Kennedy, Repugnancy to Islam - Who Decides? - Islam and Legal Reform in Pakistan, ICLQ 41 (1992) 769ff.
36
So most recently the Azad Jammu & Kashmir Shariat Court in Tariq Mahmood v. Zarda Begum, 1995 CLC, 1102, 1112; similarly already Christine Brass v. Javed Iqbal, PLD 1981 Pesh. 110, 116; cf. also D. Otto, Country Report Pakistan, in: Bülow / Böckstiegel / Geimer / Schütze, Internationaler Rechtsverkehr in Zivil und Handelsssachen (16. Lfg. 1994) pp. 1109 - 8; D. Otto, Difficulties in Recognizing and Enforcing Foreign Judgments and Arbitral Awards in Pakistan, IPRax 1997, 438ff .; Tanzil ur-Rahman (fn. 5; ed. 1984) p. 2.
37
See also IPG report 1982, No. 19 p. 194; Rauscher, StAZ 1985, 102f .; Farani (fn. 15) pp. 2ff .; Mahmood (fn. 6) p. 8. General on Islamic conflict of laws also Elwan, Influences of Islam and the concept of the Arab nation on the citizenship, aliens and conflict of laws of the Arab states, in: Nation und Staat in international private law; ed. by Jayme / Mansel (1987) p. 291ff .; Elwan, L’Islam et les systèmes de Conflits de Lois, in: Carlier / Verwilghens, Le statut personnel des musulmans (Brussels 1992) p. 313ff .; Elwan, Le droit interreligieux égyptien auprès des tribuneaux allemands, in: v. Bar, Islamic Law and its Reception by Courts in the West (1999) pp. 55ff.
38 39
Amira Bokhari v. Jameluud Din Bokari, 1995 MLD, 34 (37).
40
See BVerwG April 30, 1985, JZ 1985, 740; Soergel / Schurig, BGB (12th edition 1996) Art. 13 EGBGB marginal no. 127; Elwan, L’Islam (fn. 37), p. 330ff.
41
Cf. OLG Hamm 9/12/1986, StAZ 1986, 352 on the identical problem of the double marriage of a Jordanian during the existence of a marriage to a German; Erman / Hohloch, BGB (9th edition 1993) Art. 6 EGBGB marginal no. 34 with far. Nachw .; MünchKomm. / Coester, BGB (3rd edition 1998) Art. 13 EGBGB marginal no. 45 with far. Nachw .; Spickhoff, marriage, divorce and public policy, JZ 1991, 323, 326f .; Gaaz (fn. 1) with reference to other opinions.
42
Soergel / Schurig (footnote 40) Art. 14 EGBGB marginal no. 74; MünchKomm. / Coester (fn. 41) Art. 13 EGBGB marginal no. 45 and footnote 215; Eichenhofer, International Social Law in International Private Law (1987) pp. 148ff .; on French law Fadlallah, Lien conjugal et rencontre des civilizations, in: Carlier / Verwilghens (fn. 37) p.331ff .; Bourdelois, Mariage polygamique en droit positif français (Paris 1993) pp. 283ff. and 338ff.
43
Fyzee, Outlines of Muhammadan Law (4th ed., 7th reprint Delhi 1993) p. 405.
44
Nachw. In Pearl / Menski (fn. 4) p. 273ff. See also Pearl, The English experience, in: v. Bar, Islamic Law (fn. 37) p. 114 with reference to case law.
45
A description of the Pakistani practice of recognizing foreign judgments is also given by D. Otto, Country Report Pakistan (fn. 36), pp. 1109-6; Otto, Difficulties in Recognition (fn. 36) IPRax 1997, 436ff.
46
BGH 7.4.1976, FamRZ 1976, 336; Staudinger / Spellenberg, BGB (12th edition 1990) §§ 606ff. ZPO marginal no. 30 with far. Nachw.
47
Staudinger / Spellenberg (footnote 46) § 606 ZPO marginal no. 382.
48
Linke, Internationales Civil Procedure Law (1990) para. 37.
49
OLG Hamburg November 6, 1987, StAZ 1988, 132, 134, also OLG Cologne, IPRspr. 1971, No. 63; LG Hamburg, IPRspr. 1973, No. 34; Henrich, Internationales Familienrecht (1989) p. 17; a.A. Ficker, StAZ 1952, 117; far. Nachw. To dev. Opinions at MünchKomm. / Schwimann, BGB (2nd edition 1990) Art. 13 EGBGB No. 79 there fn. 276.
50
LG Hamburg, IPRspr. 1973, No. 34.