Why did Saladin execute Raynald De Chatillon

Rainald Prince of Antioch (1152-1161)
--------- Seigneur of Chatillon-sur-Loing
around 112505.07.1187 murdered
 

Son of Seigneur Herve II of Donzy and Mathilde von Montmirail, daughter of Wilhelm Goeth IV.

Lexicon of the Middle Ages: Volume VII Column 416
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Rainald von Chatillon, Prince of Antioch, Lord of Transjordan from the House of DONZY
---------------------------
*     , July 7, 1187
Chatillon-sur-Loing

Younger son of Herve II, Lord of Donzy (Nievre)

Rainald came to the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1147, initially served Balduin III. and then Constance of Antiochwhom he married in 1153. He fell together with in 1156 Thoros II of Cilicia into the rich Byzantine Cyprus. In 1158 he was able to do so with support Balduins III. and Dietrichs von Alsace, the Count of Flanders, regained the fortress of Harenc, which had been conquered by the Muslims, but in the face of a Byzantine retaliatory campaign for his attack on Cyprus soon found himself forced into the vassalage of the Byzantine emperor (1159). From 1160 onwards he spent 16 years in Muslim captivity by the governor of Aleppo. Released in 1176, he went to Jerusalem because his wife ( 1163) the principality to the son from their 1st marriage, Bohemond III., inherited. Marries 1177 Rainald of Chatillon the widows of the Lord of Transjordan, Stephania. As seigneur of this feudal duchy controlled the kingdom of Jerusalem Rainald (via the forts of Kerak and Montreal) important Muslim trade and pilgrimage routes. When he attacked a Muslim caravan and that of Saladin Refused the reparation demanded, an open war broke out again Rainaldled in the Red Sea with five fast galleys. 1186 was Rainald of Chatillon in securing the coronation of Sibyl, the sisterBaldwin IV of Jerusalem, and her husbandGuido of Lusignan involved. Rainaldssneaky attack on a large Muslim caravan on the route from Damascus to Egypt delivered in early 1187 Saladin the welcome case belli. The war quickly led to the devastating Frankish defeat at Hattin (July 4, 1187). The prisoner Rainald of Chatillon has been Saladin who demonstrated him when Rainaldrefused the required conversion to Islam, with his own hand beheaded. Saladin According to his own letter, he saw himself as a servant of God who fulfilled a vow during this act of killing. In the West was Rainald honored as an exemplary Christian knight and martyr, especially in the case of Peter von Blois ("Passio reginaldi" 1187).


Thiele, Andreas: Plate 173
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"Narrative genealogical family tables on European history Volume III European Imperial, Royal and Princely Houses Supplementary Volume"

KONSTANZE, Princess of Antioch
-------------------
* 1127, 1163

2. oo 1152
RAINALD DE CHATILLON-SUR-LOING
                  

Son of Seigneur Gottfried

Rainald of Chatillonwas Lord of Kerak, of Montroyal and Count of Moab (area east of the Dead Sea) and was considered one of the worst and most unrestrained wheezes of the Crusade period. In 1152-1163 he was also Prince of Antioch and in 1158 had to recognize the Byzantine feudal sovereignty after wars. He constantly carried out brutal looting campaigns and also hijacked in the Red Sea and the eastern Mediterranean. He participated in a number of battles, such as the 1153 battle of Ascalon, which was won with it, and the 1177 battle of Ramla. He continued at times SaladinsSister captured and captured by Islamists herself in 1161-1176. Rainald broke every armistice immediately, was captured in the battle of Hittin in 1187 and was taken by Saladinexecuted.


Rainald was a brave but characterless French knight, who in 1152 through his marriage to the Princess Constance I.Became prince of Antioch. He made a raid on the island of Cyprus in 1159, but was dated Byzantine Emperor Manuel I. forced to withdraw. In 1160 he was captured by the Seljuks and after his release after 16 years of imprisonment made daring forays into Egypt and Arabia, struck an attack Saladins on the castle Kerak (Petra) in 1183, but fell in the battle of Hittin on 5.7.1187 into captivity Saladins and was knocked down with his own hand by the man who had sworn to kill him.

M.ayer, Hans Eberhard: Pages 104-107, 117-119, 122-124
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"History of the Crusades"

During the siege of Askalon had Constance of Antioch Surprisingly decided to a new marriage, but did not choose any of the politically worth considering candidates Rainald of Chatillon, a handsome and daring warrior, but of unbridled temperament, penniless, devoid of support and political foresight. Until his end he remained a daredevil adventurer who was never able to measure or estimate the scope and consequences of his actions. Balduin III. was ill-advised in agreeing to this connection because Rainald immediately revealed brutal traits when he had the Patriarch of Antioch arrested after his wedding and exposed him to the Syrian sun and flies with his honey-coated head. On energetic ideas Balduins III. had to Rainaldshowever, backtrack.
Rainald of Antiochused those through the disease Only d-dinsincurred pause to support with Balduins III. and to wrest the fortress of Harim from the Saracens from the present Count Dietrich von Flanders (February 1158), which shielded Antioch on the Orontes to the east.
The prince of Antioch did nothing to make himself unpopular. Most of all he had the Byzantine Emperor and also King Baldwin by one together with the Armenian prince Toros The expedition undertaken against the rich Byzantine island of Cyprus was enraged (1156), where the Antiochenes staged a single orgy of devastation, murder and robbery for three weeks. It was shown for the first time that in Rainald the chivalrous greed for prey dominated over any reasonable consideration. A year later, his behavior caused the king of Jerusalem to adopt a closer relationship with Byzantium. Broke in the fall of 1158 Emperor Manuel with his army. Rainald did not wait for the far superior Byzantine to arrive, but went to Mamistra in Lesser Armenia, seeking mercy, threw himself barefoot and bareheaded at the emperor's feet and promised to hand over the citadel of Antioch and appoint a Greek patriarch. Caught in 1161 Rainald of Antioch into captivity by the governor of Aleppo, where he had to stay for 16 years. Nobody tried to trigger it.
Rainald became one of the leaders of the other party, dominated by newcomers more adventurous and owner-occupied. He was finally released from captivity in 1176, but could no longer return to Antioch, but gained the mighty rule of Oultrejourdain through a clever marriage with the strong fortress Kerak as its center. In addition, he succeeded in separating Hebron from the crown domain, as its first seigneur he appears in 1177. This violated the unwritten rule that a lord of Oultrejourdain was not allowed to own any other seigneuries and therefore snubbed all the more against Humfred II of Toron, who in 1148 and 1149 had created the prerequisites for Hebron to come to him when he took over the royal castellan in Hebron fall, if it should be raised to seigneury at all.
Rainald was the chief arranger of the engagement of his stepson Humfred IV of Toron to the 1180 Princess Isabella of Jerusalem, Daughter of King Amalrich I. After the accession to the throne of Sibyl and Guido of Lusignan seems Rainald of Chatillon have been less satisfied. In the spring of 1187 he delivered theSultan Saladin the desired reason for war, when he attacked a Saracen caravan that was going from Damascus to Egypt while the armistice was still in progress. He had Saladin earlier enraged by similar ill-considered actions when he attacked pilgrims to Mecca without regard to peace or war and plundered the coast of the Red Sea in a sensational foray. Saladin could not accept the permanent endangerment of the main route of communication between Egypt and Syria in Transjordan and declared war when Rainald refused to make amends. The kingship was too weak to impose reason on the Lord of Oultrejourdain. That Rainald refusing the king's request was not entirely unprecedented, but it was an unprecedented negation of the crown when he replied that he had no truce with the Saracens in Transjordan and that he was as lord of the country as the king was. It actually came down to a declaration of independence. He was captured at the Battle of Hattin and used by Sultan Saladindecapitated by hand.
 
 
 
 

    1152
1. oo 2. Constanze I of Antioch, daughter of Bohemond II.
               1128 1163/67

    1177
2. oo 3. Stephanie von Milly, Philipp's heir daughter
                    

Heiress to Oultrejourdain
 
 
 
 

Children:
1. marriage

Agnes (Anna)
  11541184

 1172
oo 2. Bela III. King of Hungary
around 1148 23.4.1196

Alix from Chatillon
        1235 after 11.10.

22.4.1204
oo Azzo VI. Margrave d'Este
             18.11.1212
 
 
 
 

Literature:
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B.rowning Robert: Byzantium. Rome's golden daughters. The history of the Byzantine Empire. Gustav Lübbe Verlag GmbH Bergisch Gladbach 1982 Page 129 - Jones Terry /E.reira Alan: The Crusades. Bechtermünz Verlag 2000 Page 150,154,158 - Kugler Bernd: History of the Crusades. Reprint-Verlag-Leipzig 1880 - L.ehmann Johannes: The crusaders. Adventurer of God. Gondrom Verlag Bindlach 1991 page 238, 259,267,271,278 - M.ayer, Hans Eberhard: History of the Crusades, Verlag W. Kohlhammer GmbH 1995 Page 104-107,117-119,122-124 - Norwich John Julius: Byzantium. The rise of the Eastern Roman Empire. Econ Verlag GmbH, Düsseldorf and Munich 1993 Volume III Pages 143, 148, 153 - PAyne Robert: The cross trains. Two hundred years of struggle for the Holy Sepulcher. Albatros Verlag Düsseldorf 2001 page 168,174,176,195 - R.unciman, Steven: History of the Crusades, special edition in 1 volume Verlag H.C. Beck Munich 1978, page 650-759 - Thiele, Andreas: Narrative genealogical family tables on European history Volume III European Imperial, Royal and Princely Houses Supplementary Volume, R.G. Fischer Verlag 1994 Plate 173 - ZÖllner Walter: History of the Crusades. VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften Berlin 1977 page 112,114-117,244 -