How are yarns made
Many use the words Yarn or Sewing thread, Thread and Thread and don't even know what the difference is. That is why we want to define the terms first.
According to DIN 60900, “yarn” is a collective term for all linear textile structures. In the narrower sense, “sewing thread” has the meaning of “simple sewing thread”. This makes it easier to differentiate between the sewing thread and the thread. A spun thread is called a simple sewing thread, which has been produced from individual fibers of a certain length by a spinning process. The simple sewing thread is rotated around an (imaginary) axis.
If a yarn is made by twisting (twisting) simple yarns, one speaks of a twisted thread. A thread is therefore always composed of several (at least two) threads.
The word “thread” has become established in common parlance. This refers to simple sewing threads, threads, cords, etc. However, it cannot be used to identify the type of product.
Which species of sewing threads are there?
For one thing, apart from the threads, there are those Spun yarn. Depending on the raw material and the resulting spinning process, these are staple fibers that are mechanically twisted into sewing threads. Their rotation gives them their strength. These staple fibers are either of natural origin (e.g. cotton and linen) or remnants of the non-unreelable silk thread on the cocoon or man-made fibers cut or torn into stacks.
Filament yarns are continuous fibers that are produced by the silkworm or spun from spinning masses using a chemical-technical method. A filament made from a continuous fiber is called a monofilament. Several individual filaments, combined with or without twist, are called multifilaments.
In which direction is the thread or thread twisted?
As Direction of rotation Z is the name for the yarn if the fibers in the yarn run in the direction of the slash of the letter Z while the thread is held vertically. If it is the opposite, it is an S-turn.
Now let's look at those numbering. The sewing thread usually has a number that indicates the thickness of a sewing thread. As a rule, numbers are used to identify a yarn.
To Weight numbering there would be the Tex system on the one hand: titer tex. Titer tex (Tt) and the titer denier (Td). “Tex” is the German name, but the French name “denier” is used. Both numbers indicate how heavy a sewing thread / thread with a certain length is. So 1 tex or denier stands for 1 gram of yarn at 1 km or 9000 m.
To the Length numbering in turn, two other key figures are used. This specifies how long a sewing thread / thread is with a certain weight. The metric number (Nm) indicates how long the sewing thread is at a certain gram weight. 10 Nm means that 10 meters of sewing thread weighs one gram. The smaller the number, the stronger, more robust the thread. The usual name is: extra strong sewing thread.
The English cotton number (NeB) is based on the length of the yarn in “hanks”, which corresponds to a strand length of 840 yards and the weight in pounds (lbs).
With which properties can sewing threads be differentiated?
The properties of the sewing threads have a significant influence on the textile surfaces and items of clothing made from them. They are also decisive for the respective area of application of the sewing thread.
Yarn uniformity: Slight cross-section fluctuations or changes in cross-section (areas of different thickness and thickness in the sewing thread) are among the most important requirements for trouble-free processing. It must be said here that staple fiber yarns can never be completely uniform.
Yarn purity: Contamination by foreign fibers, packaging particles, raw material contamination (e.g. dark woolen hair or shells) etc. worsen both the visual impression and the quality in the production process, so that errors and holes can occur.
Shrimp elasticity: The elasticity of the sewing thread is measured by how the thread contracts to its original size after being stretched. Depending on what is to be produced, different elastic yarns are used (e.g. high elasticity in socks).
Yarn strength: Indicates the value of the resistance of the sewing thread or thread in the event of a tensile load until it breaks. Sewing threads with a low elasticity often lead to holes in clothing.
Twist: The number of twists influences the hardness of a sewing thread and thus the feel and appearance of textiles made from it.
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