Are the languages ​​Gujarati and Marwari similar

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Language spoken in Rajasthan, India

Marwari ((Mārwāṛī;; also rendered Marwadi, Marvadi) is a Rajasthani dialect spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Marwari is also found in the neighboring states of Gujarat and Haryana, in East Pakistan and in some migrant communities in Nepal. With around 7.8 million speakers (around 2011), it is one of the largest varieties of Rajasthani. Most of the speakers live in Rajasthan, a quarter of a million in Sindh and a tenth in Nepal. There are two dozen dialects of Marwari.

Marwari is popularly written in Devanagari script, as are Hindi, Marathi, Nepali, and Sanskrit; Although it was historically written in Mahajani, it is still written in Perso-Arabic script by the Marwari minority in East Pakistan (the standard / West Naskh script variant is used in Sindh Province and the eastern Nastalik variant is used in Punjab Province used). where it has an educational status but where it quickly shifts to Urdu.[4]

Marwari has no official status in India and is not used as an educational language. Marwari is still widely spoken in and around Bikaner and Jodhpur.

History

It is believed that Marwari and Gujarati evolved from Gujjar Bhakha or Maru-Gurjar, Language of the Gurjars.[5] The formal grammar of Gurjar Apabhraṃśa was written by the Jain monk and the well-known Gujarati scholar Hemachandra Suri.[citation needed]

Geographical distribution [edit]

Marwari is mainly spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Marwari speakers have spread throughout India and other countries, but are mostly found in neighboring Gujarat and East Pakistan. Speakers can also be found in Bhopal. With around 7.9 million speakers in India according to the 2001 census.[6]

There are different dialects: Thaḷī (spoken in the eastern Jaisalmer district and northwestern Jodhpur district), Bāgṛī (near Haryana), Bhitrauti, Sirohī, Godwārī.[7]

Indian Marwari [rwr] in Rajasthan shares a 50% -65% lexical similarity with Hindi (based on a Swadesh 210 word list comparison). It has many related words with Hindi. Notable phonetic equivalents include / s / in Hindi with / h / in Marwari. For example / sona / ‘gold’ (Hindi) and / hono / ‘gold’ (Marwari).

Pakistani Marwari [mve] shares 87% lexical similarity between its southern subdialects in Sindh (Utradi, Jaxorati and Larecha) and northern subdialects in Punjab (Uganyo, Bhattipo and Khadali), 79% -83% with Dhakti [mki] and 78% Meghwar and Bhat Marwari dialects. Mutual intelligibility of Pakistani Marwari [mve] with Indian Marwari [rwr] is decreasing due to the rapid shift of active speakers in Pakistan to Urdu, their use of Arabic script and various sources of support media, and their separation from Indian Marwari, although there is some educational effort to keep them active (but no official recognition by the Pakistani or provincial government level). Many words have been borrowed from other Pakistani languages.[4]

Merwari [wry] shares 82% –97% intelligibility of Pakistani Marwari [mve] with 60% –73% lexical similarity between Merwari varieties in Ajmer and Nagaur districts, but only 58% –80% with Shekhawati [swv] 49% -74% with Indian Marwari [rwr] 44% -70% with Godwari [gdx] 54% -72% with Mewari [mtr] 62% -70% with Dhundari [dhd] 57% -67% with Haroti [hoj]. In contrast to Pakistani marwari [mve] the use of merwari remains vigorous, even if its best-trained speakers also speak Hindi well.[8]

Phonology [edit]

A Marwari spokesman recorded in India.

/ h / sometimes elides. There are also a variety of vowel changes. Most pronouns and interrogatives, however, are different from those in Hindi.[citation needed]

Morphology [edit]

Marwari languages ​​have a structure very similar to Hindustani (Hindi or Urdu).[citation needed] Their primary word order is subject-object-verb[9][10][11][12][13] Most of the pronouns and interrogatives used in Marwari are different from those used in Hindi. At least Marwari and Harauti differ in their plural pronouns.[citation needed]

Vocabulary [edit]

The Marwari vocabulary is somewhat similar to other West Indo-Aryan languages, particularly Rajasthani and Gujarati. However, the elements of grammar and basic terminology differ enough to significantly affect mutual intelligibility. In addition, Marwari uses many words that are found in Sanskrit (the ancestor of most of the North Indian languages) that do not appear in Hindi.

Writing system [edit]

Marwari is generally written in the Devanagari script, although the Mahajani script is traditionally associated with the language. In Pakistan it is written in Perso-Arabic script with changes. The historical Marwari spelling for Devanagari uses other characters in place of the standard Devanagari letters.[14]

Devanagari Perso-Arabic Latin IPA
– – a ə
a ɑ
ـِ I ɪ
ﺍیِ I I
ـُ u ʊ
ﺍۇ ū u
اے e e
ﺍو Ö Ö
अं – – a ə̃
आं a ɑ̃
इं I ɪ̃
ईं I I
उं ũ ʊ̃
ऊं ū̃ ũ
एं
ओं Ö Ö
ک k k
کھ kh
گ G G
گھ gh G
چ c t͡ʃ
چھ CH t͡ʃʰ
ج j d͡ʒ
جھ century d͡ʒʰ
ٹ ʈ
ٹه ṭh ʈʰ
ڈ ɖ
ڈه ḍh ɖʰ
ڏ
ॾ़ ڏه d̤h ᶑʰ
ݨ ɳ
ण़ ݨه ṇh ɳʰ
ت t
تھ th t̪ʰ
د d
ده ie d̪ʰ
ن n n
نھ nh
پ p p
پھ ph
ب b b
بھ bra
ॿ ٻ ɓ
ॿ़ ٻه bra ɓʰ
م m m
म़ مھ mh
ےٜٜ y j
ر r ɾ
ड़ رؕ ɽ
ढ़ رؕه r̤h ɽʰ
ज़ ز z z
ॼ़ زه zh
ل l l
ल़ لھ lh
ݪ ɭ

See also [edit]

References [edit]

  1. ^"Statement 1: Summary of Speakers Speaking Proficiency and Native Tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General & Census Commissioner's Office, India. Retrieved July 7, 2018.
  2. ^Ernst Kausen, 2006. The classification of the Indo-European languages (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
  3. ^Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, ed. (2017). “Rajasthani”. Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ ab“Pakistani Marwari”. Ethnolog. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  5. ^Ajay Mitra Shastri; RK Sharma; Devendra Handa (2005). Revealing India's Past: Current Trends in Art and Archeology. Aryan Books International. p. 227. ISBN.
  6. ^“Census of India Web Site: Office of the Chancellor General and Census Commissioner, India”. censusindia.gov.in.
  7. ^Masica, Colin P. (1991). The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 12, 444. ISBN.CS1 maintenance: ref = harv (link)
  8. ^“Merwari”. Ethnolog. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  9. ^“Indian Marwari”. Ethnolog. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  10. ^“Dhundari”. Ethnolog. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  11. ^“Shekhawati”. Ethnolog. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  12. ^“Mewari”. Ethnolog. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  13. ^“Haroti”. Ethnolog. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  14. ^Pandey, Anshuman. 2010. Proposal to encode the Marwari Letter DDA for Devanagari
  15. ^“Marwari”, Omniglot.com.

Further reading [edit]

  • Lakhan Gusain (2004). Marwari. Munich: Lincom Europe (LW / M 427)

External links [edit]