How alive are LSD hallucinations

LSD - cultural history of a fashion drug

Film, music and literatureby Peter Nuhn, Halle

There is hardly any other active ingredient with such a far-reaching cultural and social influence as Lysergic acid diethylamide LSD. Psychiatrists, psychologists, behaviorists, theologians, philosophers, painters, writers and musicians made use of the mind-altering drug, which has not lost its importance to this day.

LSD was first synthesized in 1938 by Albert Hofmann (born 1906), an employee of Sandoz AG, Basel, after Arthur Stoll (1887-1971), also at Sandoz (2), had been in isolation and Had devoted to structural elucidation of the ergot alkaloids. By chance, Hofmann discovered the hallucinogenic effects of LSD while repeating the synthesis, so that on April 19, 1943 he undertook a self-experiment with 0.25 mg of LSD tartrate. Hofmann reported to Stoll (3) about his experiences:

»... I had to interrupt my work in the laboratory in the middle of the afternoon and go home because I was stricken with a strange restlessness combined with a slight feeling of dizziness. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant, intoxicating state, which was characterized by an extremely active imagination. In the twilight state with closed eyes - I found the daylight uncomfortably glaring - on the other hand, fantastic images of extraordinary plasticity and an intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors constantly impacted me. The condition evaporated after two hours. "

The history of the discovery of LSD was described in detail by Hofmann (3). After systematic pharmacological investigations in 1947, the psychiatrist Werner A. Stoll, son of Arthur Stoll, described the various symptoms of LSD intoxication. He spoke of optical hallucinations of unimaginable proportions and unimaginable colors, images that can hardly be fixed but change incredibly quickly, a euphoric mood that later turns into a depressive one and in which the initially bright colors of blue, violet and Dark green tones are replaced. Stoll emphasized:

"I felt at one with all romantics and fantastic people, thought of E. T. A. Hoffmann, saw the maelstrom of Poes, although this description on his part had struck me as exaggerated."

Hallucinogen and Fantastic

LSD proved to be a "hallucinogen", "fantastic" and "psychotomimetic". At first, attempts were made to use the intoxicant therapeutically, in particular to generate model psychoses and to support psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. From 1947 to 1966, Sandoz marketed LSD as Delysid® coated tablets (0.025 mg) and ampoules (0.1 mg / 1 ml). The indication was as follows: »For mental relaxation in analytical psychotherapy, especially in anxiety and obsessional neuroses, as well as for experimental investigation into the nature of psychoses. Delysid® gives the doctor an insight into the world of ideas of the mentally ill in a self-experiment and enables the study of pathogenetic problems in normal test subjects through short-term model psychoses «(3).

Hymphrey Osmond (1917-2004), Stanislav Grof (born 1931) and Timothy Leary (1920-1996) should be mentioned in particular among the psychiatrists and psychologists who deal intensively with LSD and the related hallucinogens mescaline and psilocybin. Osmond published his experience with drugs in 1952 under the title "The Doors of Experience". This is how I came into contact with Aldous Huxley (1894-1963). He then took mescaline and LSD under medical supervision and, under the influence of the drug, wrote the cult book "The Doors of Perception" in 1953.

The focus of Huxley's interest, who also made personal contact with Hofmann in 1961, was the expansion of consciousness on the way to a deeper understanding of religious and mystical content. Huxley recognized psychedelic drugs - revealing the psyche - as helpful and tested mescaline as well as LSD and later psilocybin. Huxley made the first attempt at LSD in 1955 together with Captain Albert M. Hubbard and the writer Gerald Heard. In his novel »Island«, Huxley describes the magical drug moksha medicine (moksha: in Sanskrit 'liberation'), which is used to achieve 'cleansing' visions.

Huxley referred to Hofmann as the "original discoverer of the moksha-medicine" (3). According to reports from his second wife Laura, shortly before his death, Huxley read Timothy Leary's Psychedelic Experiences, which are based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead. The last written request from Huxley on his deathbed on November 22, 1963 to his wife was: "LSD - try it - intramuscular - 100 mmg try 100 micrograms of LSD, intramuscular."

Influence on painting

Huxley had not thought much of the influence of psychedelics on painting throughout his life: “A few experiments have been made to find out what a painter can do under the influence of the drug, but most of the examples I have seen are completely uninteresting. One can never hope to fully reproduce the completely incredible intensity of color that one perceives under the influence of the drug. Most of what I've seen are pretty boring pictures, a bit in the style of Expressionism, with almost no relation to the real experience, I would like to think. "

The experiences of other drug users opposed this. Drawings such as those made by Dr. Làszlò Màtèfis made in the LSD state in 1951. They reflect the significantly changed perception of reality in the course of an LSD trip. Other works of psychedelic art (4, 5) were not created during the drug intoxication, which is characterized by paralyzed activity, but afterwards.

A visual artist who experimented with hallucinogenic drugs is Arnulf Rainer (6), born in 1929. Rainer, who is also known for blind painting, which can be assigned to automatism, has made a series of LSD pictures with the significant title »Wahnhall«.

Psychiatric research

One of the most important psychiatrists who researched extraordinary states of consciousness and the influence of psychedelic substances was, as already mentioned, Stanislav Grof, who in 1960 at the Psychiatric Research Institute in Prague researched the potential of psychedelic therapy, including the use of LSD in psychotherapy started. According to himself, he had his first LSD session in 1956. In 1967 Grof emigrated to the USA. As the long-time president of the "International Transpersonal Association" he is known as the "father of transpersonal psychology". He describes his experiences “at the limits of human consciousness” as follows: “The exploration of the possibilities of these drugs for didactic purposes, for a deeper understanding of art and religion, for personality diagnosis and the therapy of mental disorders and finally for a change Our experience of dying has been my main professional concern over the years, to which I devoted the greater part of the time I spent in psychiatric research. "

Grof became the main proponent of holistic psychotherapy. He attributed LSD's ability to amplify psychological processes and bring the unconscious to the surface. Grof was of the opinion that with LSD the journey into unconscious areas of the psyche is possible. He summarized his very extensive LSD experiments and the knowledge he gained on events from his own past and present as well as on perinatal and transpersonal experiences in the fundamental work »Topography of the Unconscious. LSD in the Service of Depth Psychological Research «, which appeared in 1975.

The above-mentioned American psychologist Timothy Leary, as a professor at the prestigious Harvard University in Cambridge / USA, began experiments in 1960, initially with psychotropic mushrooms, then from 1962 mainly with LSD (7). Leary himself described his experiments as "experimental mysticism". He had an enormous influx of students who wanted to take part in the studies. Leary propagated LSD as a drug for "expanding consciousness" and was to become the "drug apostle" of the hippie culture of the sixties with LSD as the lead drug. More on that later.

Before that, the LSD and psilocybin self-experiments of the Islamist Rudolf Gelpke (1928-1972) will be described, who reported on his drug experiences in his 1966 book "Vom Rausch in Orient und Occident". Gelbke describes a gradual spiritual withering away from his known human world, a progressive alienation from himself, a "dancing of his soul", a contact with a demon, his "soul monster". Ernst Jünger (1895-1997), whom Hofmann contacted in 1945, also carried out "practical studies on drugs". Literally in a letter to Hofmann in 1948, in which he thanked Hofmann for the publications sent to him: “These are experiments in which sooner or later you step into very dangerous chambers and you can be happy if you have a black eye got away. "

Mystical experience of being

In 1951, Jünger and Hofmann jointly undertook an LSD self-experiment in the presence of the doctor and pharmacologist Heribert Konzett, albeit in too low a dose. Hofmann reported: “All three of us had approached the gateway to a mystical experience of being; but it did not open. «And Jünger, who had already gained in-depth experience with mescaline, even said:» Compared to the tiger mescaline, your LSD is only a house cat. «This judgment was made by Jünger, who had his LSD experience in the story “Visit to Godenholm” published in 1952 and the volume of essays published in 1970 “Approaches. Drugs and Intoxication «literarily processed, later corrected. According to Hofmann (3), Jünger then speaks of drugs as "keys - they will of course not unlock more than what is hidden inside us ... But they may lead to depths that would otherwise be locked."


Health risks are great There are major health risks associated with taking LSD. Under LSD severe psychotic disorders, a "horror trip" or "flashback", in other words: "echo rush" can be triggered without renewed use of LSD. In particular, states of confusion of a depressive character have been reported, which can lead to suicide. Especially at the beginning of the intoxication, it is possible that the pulse rate, blood pressure, body temperature (sweating) and blood sugar level increase or cause dizziness and drowsiness. Long-lasting disturbances of the visual-spatial orientation can occur. Particularly dangerous are states in which the person concerned believes, on the basis of paranoid ideas, to be invulnerable and able to fly. The individual intoxicating effect of LSD is difficult to predict, as it depends not only on the dosage and the purity of the preparations but also on the psychological starting position of the consumer. The effects of LSD occur after 20 to 60 minutes. The hallucinations and changes in consciousness can last five to twelve hours.


In »Approaches«, Jünger describes the drug researchers as »psychonauts« for the first time: while astronauts explore the vastness of space, they travel into the depths of their own psyche. This term should be used again and again in the future, for example as the name of a rock band or as the title of the science fiction novel "Die Psychonauten" by Josef Nyáry (born 1944). A CD with original sound recordings by the LSD discoverer Hofmann is also entitled »Memories of a Psychonaut. From the discovery of entheogenic drugs ”.

Entheogens are substances that provide poetic and prophetic inspiration and, under certain conditions, are supposed to evoke subjective experiences of the divine (8, 9). Consumers argue that they can serve as the basis for a "molecular theology". The use of active ingredients in the field of religious psychology is not new. The American psychologist and philosopher William James (1842-1910) wrote in his book "The Diversity of Religious Experiences" about his own experiments with nitrous oxide and ether in order to "trigger a mystical consciousness of extraordinary intensity".

In the introduction to the "topography of the unconscious" already mentioned, Grof had also written that LSD "heralds the age of a new religion with a messiah in the form of a chemical agent" and that in LSD "a panacea for terminally ill humanity, the only reasonable alternative to Mass suicide in a nuclear disaster «. The "chemical mysticism" had meanwhile led to the emergence of an empirical "neurotheology" and "experimental religion". The biochemist Erwin Chargaff stated: "Mankind, who knows that everything can be explained, has become dull and is waiting for the injection of mysteries that can now come from the wrong side: pseudo-religions fight against pseudosciences."

Experimental religion

The Swiss psychiatrist and writer Walter Vogt (1927-88), who also maintained personal contact with Hofmann, also had ecstatic-religious insights (3). Vogt's findings are reflected in his novel “Forgetting and Recalling”, published in 1980, in which Vogt describes the stay in a rehab facility and the unease in a world that allows people to resort to drugs out of refusal.

The sentence by Heraclitus, which Vogt precedes his novel with autobiographical features, is already remarkable: “When they are awake, everyone has a single and common world; but in sleep everyone turns to his own world. "

The protagonist of the novel, which is written in first-person form, is undergoing a treatment of rehab. In a letter to the doctor treating him, he answered the question he asked himself about where his experiences with his “states of heightened lucidity” with LSD have led: “To where such knowledge, this experience must lead: to you. To the madhouse. Others choose the direct route to death. If you are locked in such "psychedelic" states, in a narrow space, you begin to perform "catatonic" movements under duress, that's what you would call it: you kneel down, spread your arms, palms forward, your mouth halfway open, an attitude of worship, open, meaningless, devoid of thought. Dear Doctor, I by no means believe that in those states of heightened clarity (expansion of consciousness, psychedelic) one actually learns something about God; but you learn about religion, how it could have originated, about mythology and about psychopathology as you would like to call it. I would rather say: over the human heart. "

And it goes on: “I was once God on Sinai. I was sitting on a dune in Sicily (1970 in May, you will want to know exactly, for your entry in my medical record: a simple hashish rush). The great mother goddess, my wife, can be felt next to me. But then suddenly there was only this God and his creature, who at the same time was his adversary; at the foot of my sand hill an ant lion in its self-made funnel, an ingenious, malicious, little insect that throws sand at passing ants. They slide off into its funnels, the ant lion grabs them with tongs and sucks them out. I stare at the ant lion for minutes, I don't know for sure: an eternity, a state without the deadly ticking of time. From a record, Mozart's coronation mass, I heard my creatures, the people, shouting Hallelujah to me. I knew: you couldn't get any further. Quit these experiments «.

Whimsical experiences

The ecstatic-religious experiences mentioned after taking hashish and LSD were mentioned by Vogt in his 1972 book “My Sinai Trip. A lay sermon «shown. Vogt also goes into his experiences with drugs in the diary novel "Aging", first published in 1981. The reason for his drug abuse was professional difficulties. Vogt reports on the consumption of alcohol, LSD, hashish, opium and opiates, cocaine, mescaline and wake-up amines such as amphetamine and methamphetamine, i.e. speed. He received his first LSD in 1969 from a patient who was admitted to the clinic on a "bad trip". Vogt reports on »surreal experiences. ... The day after a big trip was always bad because you were spaced out, put away, gray out of tune, aggressive or tearfully depressed. I learned very quickly to end a trip correctly, either softly with hashish or diazepam, or I countered with cocaine, the world became white and hard and cold.Then soft landing with Valium and / or cannabis. Since I couldn't get LSD all the time, I got opium and cocaine and tried to simulate the trip.

During two winters I took a trip again and again, mostly LSD, once mescaline - the LSD often with speed, rarely with strychnine. Opium and cocaine, as mentioned, in between, in small amounts. Speed ​​excites, makes uncritical, leads to ego inflation, which is paid for with breakdowns. "

And: »When I recorded my speed experiences, I couldn't be honest, not even what was actually terrible to myself, the real grimace of the speed experience was left out. The psychedelic magic drugs carry you away to the heights of paradise, juggled, seductive experiences of God-likeness - only in retrospect strangely unreal. The harsh satanic drugs let me experience the depths of myself, mainly speed, also opiate - it still horrifies me in memory ... All drugs make you depressed in the long run. "

LSD became a "fashion drug" in the USA from around 1961 and in Germany from around 1966. Timothy Leary, who has already been mentioned several times and from whom the slogan of the hippie movement »turn on - tune in - drop out«, read: »get on with LSD, go into yourself and get on, was of major influence on the hippie movement from bourgeois life from «comes from. Hippie communes called themselves "Morningstar Ranch", "Drop City South", "Himalayan Academy" or "Twin Oaks". The flower children stood out for their hairstyle, clothing and lifestyle, which were characterized by shared drug experiences, the urge to religious mysticism and anti-bourgeois, pacifist and natural ways of life.

Drug festivals and mass intoxication

The hippie scene was increasingly determined by drug excesses and, ultimately, violence. Around 1967, the so-called Acid Rock or Psychedelic Rock was launched mainly by the groups "Charlatans", "Jefferson Airplane", "Grateful Dead", "Quicksilver Messenger Service", but also by "Pink Floyd" Music "with its flowing formlessness, should correspond to the visions and hallucinations that are evoked under drugs."

The first big trip festival "Bay Area Extravaganza" took place in March 1966 and was organized by Ken Kesey (1935-2001) among others. His novel "One flew over the cuckoo's nest" - "One flew over the cuckoo's nest" is considered one of the most important testimonies of the Beat generation - the "madhouse" stands for a regiment-mad state that disciplines non-conforming individuals through "brainwashing" ( 10).

The drug festivals led to a hitherto unknown mass intoxication, with the "Summer of Love" in 1967 being a high point. “It's been a bad year. A lot changed for everyone in '67. I would say there was an explosion in drug culture in 1967, if there was such a thing; it leaked underground and suddenly everyone was talking about it «, says Keith Richards, singer with the Rolling Stones (11).

Another big event followed in 1969, the Woodstock Festival, in which Jimi Hendrix also took part. The eccentric punk lady Nina Hagen reports in her autobiography "That's Why The Lady Is A Punk" that at the age of 19 she had a "great divine experience" with LSD. Today we know that overly loud music and the light shows introduced with psychedelic rock also go hand in hand with mind-expanding experiences.

The psychedelic Beatles

Psychedelic music based on intoxicant consumption is seen as the gateway to ultimate wisdom (12). Your texts describe drug experiences more or less encrypted. Last but not least, the letters L, S and D in the Beatle song "Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds" indicate LSD. John Lennon, himself experienced in LSD, sang about colored LSD visions and conveyed their meaning as a message to the flower children. Lennon himself has denied that this is a description of an LSD trip.

In the foreword to the booklet “The Psychedelic Beatles” (13) Albert Hofmann writes: “When I hear about the Beatles, the enchanting melody of 'Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds' immediately sounds in my inner ear. I don't know if this title is really a reference to LSD. Certainly there is something of an LSD trip in this song as I experience it. My 'problem child' somehow played along. "

With his story "Lucie im Wald mit den Dingsda", published in 1999, Peter Handke alludes to this title, in which the "Dingsda" can be interpreted as psychedelics. Rolling Stones songs also suggest drug experiences. Susan Gordon Lydon (born 1943), close to the Rolling Stones and consuming hashish, cocaine, LSD and heroin herself, wrote in her autobiography “The Long Way Back. Stations of an addiction. Report of a Survivor «reports on the hippie scene in the USA in the 1960s.

The works of Hermann Hesse (1877-1962) had a significant influence on the hippies and the psychedelic movement. Timothy Leary played an essential role in the propagation of Hesse's works in the USA: "Before your LSD session, you should read› Siddhartha ‹and› Steppenwolf ‹", as was stated in the essay "The Poet of the Interior Journey in Psychedelic Review" to read about Hesse.

The people portrayed by Hesse in his novel Demian, who had "discovered paranormal abilities and a mutual, invisible connection," were viewed as a "prototype of a different way of life". The novel says: "We were not separated from the majority of people by a boundary, but simply by a different kind of perception." Hesse himself did not have drug experiences, but rather Far Eastern worldviews as the basis of a new perception and familiarized with the famous Words paraphrased "the eternal striving of the human spirit towards the east, towards home".

The main literary representatives of the drug-influenced subculture of the beatnik and the flower power movement were William S. Burroughs (1914-1981) with »Junkie«, »In Search of Yage« and »Naked Lunch«, the poet Allen Ginsberg ( 1926-1997) with the poem "Howl" and Jack Kerouac (1922-1969) with the novel "On the Road". Ginsberg first took LSD in 1959 and reported on his impression: “It was unbelievable. I leaned back, listened to the music and fell into a kind of trance state. I saw in a vision that part of my consciousness that appeared permanently transcendent and identical with the origin of the universe. "

Rolf-Dieter Brinkmann (1940-1975) introduced the American scene to the German audience together with Ralf-Rainer Rygulla in the cult book »Acid«, in which, among many others, texts by Charles Bukowski, Andy Warhol and Diane di Prima are included. "The Acid House" by the Englishman Irivine Welsh (born 1958), who became known with "Trainspotting", is a collection of short stories about everyday life in the English subculture, including a raver on an LSD trip.

The film also took on the problem of LSD / psychedelics. "Chappacua" describes the American counterculture of the sixties. "Easy Rider" (1969) is a biker road movie from the rebellious sixties. The film "Naked Lunch" (1991) was shot as a horror satire in the LSD-typical Zerrooptik based on William S. Burrough's cult novel. LSD also plays a role in science fiction literature. The authors of LSD culture include Philip K. Dick, Brian W. Aldiss ("Barefoot in the Head") and Robert Heinlein ("A Man in a Strange World"). In the novel "Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldrich" by the American Philip Kindred Dick

(1928-82), who later consumed LSD himself, a man from the fictional planetary system "Prox" comes back to earth with the drug "Chew-Z" (LSD). In the eighties and nineties, the trips of psychedelic drugs no longer lead to "inner space", but to cyberspace. The so-called cyberpunk scene is shaped by works such as »Neuromancer« by William Gibson and »Schismatrix« by Bruce Sterling.

Political context

It should not be forgotten: The Federal Republic of Germany was marked by student revolts at the end of the sixties. The radicalization of the left movement up to the formation of the RAF occurred. An important book that reflects the situation in the Federal Republic of Germany at this time is the novel essay "Die Reise" by Bernward Vesper. Vesper was born in 1938 as the son of the Nazi poet Will Vesper, was Gudrun Ensslin's partner, was forcibly admitted to the Haar psychiatric clinic near Munich in February 1971 and committed suicide on May 15, 1971 in the psychiatric university clinic in Hamburg-Eppendorf. His life was dominated by the generational conflict that was particularly pronounced at the time.

»Die Reise« is an autobiography and has been referred to as the ›legacy of a whole generation‹ (Weltwoche). In a letter to his editor, Vesper wrote: “I would like to know if you could do the following book: I am currently working on the first inscription of a text called Trip, which is painstakingly labeled 'Romanessay'. It is the experimentally accurate record of a 24-hour LSD trip, both in its external and internal course. The text is constantly interrupted by reflection, recording from momentary perception, and so on; in the entire content, however, my autobiography appears clearly and the reasons why we are leaving Germany now etc. «

Vesper himself characterized his book as follows: »For me the text is called: Die Reise (which is Trip in German), because here people travel on different levels: first, the real narrative level, the journey from Dubrovnik to Tübingen (that's where it will end). Second, the Munich-Tuebingen trip, and third, the recollection. "

The incomplete work was published for the first time posthumously in 1977 and, according to "Spiegel", became a "cult book of the left". Vesper speaks in his book of “Drugs. This name alone, everything is connected with it: unconsciousness, numbness, killing of reality. We have been numb since childhood. The drug tears the veil off reality, wakes us up, makes us alive, and makes us aware of our situation for the first time. "

The students' enthusiasm for drugs triggered by the Harvard project, their social solution from society and the shift towards Far Eastern views of life, as well as the increase in the hippie movement made LSD a social problem in the USA, especially since the youth movement there is increasingly opposing it Vietnam War revolted. There were horror reports in the tabloids and not always factual discussions in public. This led to the ban on psychedelic drugs in the USA in 1966. Leary was persecuted and jailed for illicit drug possession.

With the ban on the manufacture and trade of LSD, the LSD mass trip ended, especially since the psychedelic movement had exhausted itself as an alternative way of life. LSD has lost its importance in the drug scene, although LSD consumption is currently increasing again slightly. However, the predominant drugs in the youth scene today are cannabis preparations and ecstasy.



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The author

Professor Dr. Peter Nuhn studied pharmacy from 1955 to 1960 in Leipzig. In 1964 he received his doctorate with a thesis on the "synthesis and cleavage of selenoglycosides". Nuhn completed his habilitation in 1970 before receiving a lectureship in natural product chemistry at the Biosciences Section at the University of Leipzig in 1975. In 1980 he moved to the Pharmacy Section of the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, after accepting the call to him for a professorship for pharmaceutical chemistry. Nuhn worked here as a university lecturer until he left in the summer semester of 2003. From 1990-1991 Nuhn was Dean of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, from 1991-2002 Managing Director of the Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry. His research areas included the development of inhibitors of enzymes of the phospholipid and arachidonic acid metabolism as well as the synthesis and biophysical characterization of phospho- and glycolipids. Professor Nuhn has laid down his scientific work in 150 original papers and 40 review articles. Nuhn is known not only through his participation in various specialist books, monographs and lexicons, but above all through his textbooks "Natural Product Chemistry" and "Molecular Mechanisms of Action of Pharmaceuticals".


Author's address:
Professor Dr. P. Nuhn
Martin Luther University
Department of Pharmacy
Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Strasse 4
06120 hall

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