What are the basic values of Judaism
Jewish values and norms
The Jews know a multitude of do's and don'ts.
The do's and don'ts of the Mitzvot
A law-abiding Jew fulfills the mitzvot without asking for what or why, because it is God's will.
The Ten Commandments are in the Torah, which for Christians are the Five Books of Moses. However, according to the Jewish view, divine legislation did not end with the Ten Commandments. There are 613 mitzvoting, commandments and prohibitions that Jews have to keep. These do's and don'ts are also in the Bible of Christians, but they mostly ignore them.
The name for a Jewish law is Halacha. The Halacha is about the correct application of the commandments in all life situations. The mitzvot of the Bible are immutable. The mitzvot, which are of rabbinical origin, may be modified by authorized scholars.
Observance of the mitzvot is of central importance and importance for a Jew. A believing Jew obeys the commandments, even without understanding their meaning, because: God knows the reasons.
Circumcision is the observance of the biblical command: “You are to keep my covenant between me and you and your descendants after you: everything that is male be circumcised with you. Have your foreskin circumcised on the flesh, and this shall be the sign of the covenant between you and me ”, Gen. 11 + 12.
Brit Mila is the covenant between Israel and God and circumcision is the main sign of that covenant.
The Sabbath is also a sign of the covenant between God and Israel. The Sabbath is the biblical day of rest. It starts on Friday evening with sunset and ends on Saturday evening with darkness. The Jewish day lasts from evening to evening, as the Bible says: It was evening and there was morning: second day, Genesis 1, 3. The keeping of the Sabbath testifies to the creation of the world by God. The Sabbath is the commemoration of the work of creation.
Work, i.e. all physical activities, is prohibited on the Sabbath. But everything that serves to create something new is also forbidden - out of the awareness that God is the sole creator. For example, cooking and lighting the lights are prohibited.
The Sabbath is an island of time and it should be a day of celebration and joy. There are instructions on how to do this. People who cannot afford it during the week should eat meat and fish and drink wine on the Sabbath. So good food is always part of the Sabbath.
A visit to the synagogue is also part of the Sabbath. The first service takes place on Friday evening. There is the second service on Saturday morning. The pious Jew also celebrates the end of the Sabbath on Saturday evening in the synagogue. Between the services he studies the Torah or simply surrenders to idleness.
The Sabbath is welcomed in the house by the women by lighting the Sabbath candle, in the synagogue the Sabbath is greeted as "Bride Sabbath" or "Queen Sabbath".
Purity and impurity are of great importance in Judaism. This is all about spiritual purity, not hygienic or medical. . There are, for example, unclean animals or unclean deeds, such as defamation or idolatry. There are a multitude of purity laws, of kashrut laws.
There are special dietary laws in Judaism. Jews are only allowed to consume food and drinks that are kosher. The principles of kosher diet are set out in the Bible. The implementing regulations have been developed over the centuries. The Jewish dietary laws not only prescribe food for the body, but also for the soul. It is a matter of maintaining mental well-being rather than physical well-being.
The kashrut rules cannot be explained logically; they belong to the laws of bondage. No contradiction to the laws given on Mount Sinai.
There are animals that you can eat and those that are forbidden to eat. In order for the permitted animals to be kosher, they must be slaughtered. So you have to get the carotid artery, trachea and esophagus cut through a single incision and be bled out. It is forbidden to eat meaty and milky foods together. Even the dishes for milky and meaty dishes are separated and are duplicated in pious Jewish households. This goes back to the Bible passage that says that the kid must not be boiled in its mother's milk, Exodus 23:19.
Fruits and vegetables are neutral, parwe. They can be eaten with both milk and meat. In the case of fish, fish without scales and crustaceans are not kosher, so they must not be eaten.
It is up to the rabbis to determine which food products are kosher. There are kashrut lists in German-speaking countries. Every new product has to be examined to determine whether it is kosher.
The separation of food serves the Jews to differentiate them from other peoples and helps them not to be assimilated. It is an important value in Judaism.
Menstruating women are considered impure in Judaism. You are not allowed to touch a man during this time. After menstruation, the Jewish woman goes to the mikveh, which means living water. It is a bath made of pure rainwater. Under the supervision of another woman, the woman has to go completely into hiding. The mikveh is only available to married women.
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