What is dual system in British rule

Representation of interests in the dual system

Structural Change in Industrial Relations pp 31-63 | Cite as


After Hitler came to power in 1933, the trade union houses were occupied, the organizations smashed and the company interest groups dissolved. So-called “trustees of work” were appointed by the state to regulate collective bargaining and occupational health and safety. As Reich officials, they were subordinate to the Reich Minister of Labor. The company was governed by the principle of the "joint venture", headed by the entrepreneur as the "operator", who in fact decided the content of the "company rules", which governed all aspects of the employment relationship that were not legally defined. Employees and employers were made with the ideological phrase of the "Volksgemeinschaft" into compulsory members of the National Socialist-led German Labor Front (more on this in Mason 1977 and Schneider 1999). These measures represented a complete disempowerment and disenfranchisement of the workers and their organizations.

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  1. On the different degrees of organization, their calculation and their statement see Müller-Jentsch 1997: 123ff.Google Scholar
  2. Collective bargaining improvements (e.g. wage increases or reductions in working hours) usually also benefit non-members. In the theoretical literature of associations, this is treated as a "free rider" or "collective good" problem, which makes it much more difficult for large organizations such as the trade unions to recruit and retain members. See Olson 1992.Google Scholar
  3. Data from Schroeder / Weßels (2003: 651). Google Scholar
  4. Union shop stewards mainly represent in larger companies e.g. IG Metall, IG Bergbau, Chemie und Energie as well as some other unions. They are elected by the union members in the company or appointed by the relevant union. After a high point in their activities in the 1970s, they have since declined in number and importance. In the last elections, 51,000 shop stewards were elected in only 2,500 companies in IG Metall (2004), while 72,700 works councils (including 53,000 = 73% IG Metall members) were elected in around 11,000 companies (2006) (see IG Metall: Results of the shop steward elections 2004; results of the works council elections 2006) .Google Scholar
  5. According to calculations by the German Economic Institute, which is close to the employer, the proportion of mandates allocated to the DGB is around 10 percentage points lower (cf. Müller-Jentsch / Ittermann 2000: 218; Niedenhoff 2007: 49f.). Google Scholar
  6. Applicants who are candidates for the supervisory board on union lists must first sign a declaration stating that they will transfer the amount in excess of € 4,000 from their remuneration (bonus) to the Hans Böckler Foundation (Däubler 2006: 793) .Google Scholar

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