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encyclopedia

School type, usually high school

The Lyceum is a category of educational institutions defined in the educational system of many countries, mainly in Europe. The definition varies between countries; usually it's some kind of high school.[1]

History

Lyceum is a Latin representation of the ancient Greek Λύκειον (Lykeion), the name of a high school dedicated to Apollo Lyceus in Classical Athens. This original lyceum is known to be the site of the Peripatetic school of Aristotle. Some countries derive the name for their modern schools from Latin, but use the Greek name for the old school: for example Dutch Lykeion (old and Lyceum (modern), both in English “lyceum” (note that in classical Latin the “C” in Lyceum was always pronounced as K, not a soft C, as in modern English).

The name Lycée was called up by Napoleon in 1802 and used to designate the main institutions of secondary education. From France, the name spread to many countries influenced by French culture.

By country [edit]

Asia [edit]

India [edit]

The Goa Lyceum (Portuguese: Liceu de Goa) in Panaji, Goa - founded in 1854 on the Portuguese model - was the first public secondary school in the state, then a Portuguese area.[2] Later the Goa Lyceum received the official title Liceu Nacional Afonso de Albuquerque (Afonso de Albuquerque National Lyceum).

Philippines [edit]

The Philippines follow their version of the K-12 system where the term Junior high school could be used in place of Lyceum. However, there are schools that use the word “Lyceum” in their brand. The Philippines University Lyceum (LPU) is a university in Manila founded by former war president José P. Laurel.[3] Notable alumni include current President Rodrigo Duterte, well-known author Rene Villanueva, and actor Cesar Montano. LPU has locations in Makati, Batangas, Laguna, Cavite and Davao.[4] There are other schools that call themselves “Lyceum” but are not affiliated with the LPU.

Turkey

The Turkish word for the newest part of pre-university education is lise which is derived from the French word “lycée”[5] and corresponds to "high school" in English. It takes 4 to 5 years in terms of the type of high school. At the end of their “Lise” ​​training, students take the TYT / AYT test, which is the university entrance exam, for the right to enroll in a public university or a private university.

Uzbekistan and Tajikistan [edit]

Lyceums also emerged in the countries of the former Soviet Union after they became independent. A typical example is Uzbekistan, where all high schools have been replaced by lyceums (“Litsey” is the Russian term, derived from the French “Lycée”) and offer a three-year educational program with a specific major in a specific direction. Unlike Turkey, Uzbek lyceums do not hold university entrance exams that give students the right to enter a university, but they do run a kind of “mock exam” designed to test their eligibility for a particular university.

Europe [edit]

Albania [edit]

The Albanian National Lyceum was a high school in the city of Korçë in Albania that emphasized French culture and European values. The school operated from 1917 to 1939 with a French cultural focus. The school continued as Raqi Qirinxhi High School after World War II.[6]

Belarus [edit]

The Belarusian Humanities Lyceum is a private secondary school that was founded shortly after Belarus became independent from the USSR by intellectuals such as Vincuk Viacorka and Uladzimir Kolas with the stated aim of preserving and promoting indigenous Belarusian culture and building a new Belarusian elite. It was closed by the Belarusian Ministry of Education in 2003, ostensibly to fuel hostility in Belarusian society and to use the classroom as a political soap box to indoctrinate students with biased views on history, ideology, politics, morals and values. The lyceum eventually switched to homeschooling with a limited number of underground home students.

Czech Republic [edit]

The term Lyceum refers to a type of secondary education consisting of 4 years ending with graduation. It's kind of between high school and technical high school. For example, the famous scientist Gerty Cori attended a “Lyceum” school.

Finland [edit]

The concept and the name Lyceum (in Swedish, Lyseo in Finnish) entered Finland via Sweden. Traditionally, Lycea schools were used to prepare students for university entry as opposed to the typical, more general education. Some old schools still use the name Lyceumalthough their operations vary today. For example, the Helsinki Normal Lyceum trains students in grades 7-12, while the Oulu Lyceum only enrolls students in grades 10-12. The most common term used in Finland to refer to upper secondary education is lukio In Finnish, high school in Swedish.

France [edit]

The French word for an upper secondary school, Lycéecomes from Lyceum. (See Secondary Education in France.)

Germany [edit]

Girls school (Lyceum) in Wittenberg

The lyceum in Germany was known as the old name for grammar school for girls. In Bavaria there was also a university to study theology and philosophy.

Greece [edit]

In Greece it is Λύκειο for upper secondary education. For students aged 15 to 18 or 20 years.
Students admitted to the first grade of the Lyceum School can reach a maximum age of 20 years.[7][8]
The evening lyceum (Εσπερινό) is for both adult and underage working students and lasts 3 years
since 2020–2021 academic year by law 4547/2018.[9] The Lyceum awarded Απολυτήριο,
“Apolytirio” or “Apolyterio”, this is the secondary school leaving certificate.[10]

Upper secondary school (Lyceum)::

  • Μουσικό Λύκειο (Mousiko Lykeio;; Musical lyceum; 3 years, 1998 - today)
  • Καλλιτεχνικό Λύκειο (Kalitexniko Lykeio;; Art Lyceum; 3 years, 2003 - today)
  • Πειραματικό Λύκειο (Peiramtiko Lykeio;; Experimental Lyceum; 3 years, 2011 - today)
  • Γενικό Λύκειο (ΓΕΛ; Geniko Lykeio;; General Lyceum; 3 years, 1976–1996, 2006 - today)
  • Γενικό Λύκειο Διαπολιτισμικής Εκπαίδευσης (ΓΕΛΔΕ; ie comprehensive lyceum;
    Diapolitismiko Lykeio, General Lyceum for Intercultural Education; 3 years, 2018 - today)
  • Eπαγγελματικό Λύκειο (ΕΠΑΛ; Epagelmatiko Lykeio;; Vocational high school; EPAL; 3 years, 2006 - today)
  • Εσπερινό Γενικό Λύκειο (Esperino Geniko Lykeio;; Evening General Lyceum; 3 years, 1976 - today)
  • Εσπερινό Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο (Esperino Epagelmatiko Lykeio;; Evening professional lyceum; 3 years)
  • Integrνιαίο Ειδικό Επαγγελματικό Γυμνάσιο-Λύκειο (Integrated Special Vocational High School Lyceum; ΕΝ.Ε.Ε.ΓΥ-Λ)
  • Γενικό Εκκλησιαστικό Λύκειο (ΓΕΕΛ; Ekklisiastiko Lykeio;; Ecclesiastical Gemeral Lyceum; 3 years, 2006 - today)

Deceased Upper Secondary School (Lyceum)::

  • Αθλητικό Λύκειο (Athlitiko Lykeio;; Athletic Lyceum; 3 years)
  • Ενιαίο Λύκειο (Eniaio Lykeio;; Integrated Lyceum; 3 years, 1997-2006)
  • Τεχνικό Λύκειο (Techniko Lykeio;; Technical lyceum; 3 years, 1977–1985)
  • Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο (Vocational Lyceum; 3 years; Law 576/1977; 1977–1985)
  • Γυμνάσιο (high school; integrated 3 years lower and 3 years upper secondary school)
  • Ενιαίο Πολυκλαδικό Λύκειο (ΕΠΛ; Eniaio Polykladiko Lykeio;; Integrated Multilateral Lyceum; 3 years, 1985–1997)
  • Τεχνικό Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο (ΤΕΛ; Techniko Epagelmatiko Lykeio;; Technical vocational high school; 3 years, 1985–1998)
  • Τεχνικό Επαγγελματικό Εκπαιδευτήριο (ΤΕΕ; Techniko Epagelmatiko Ekpaideftirio;; Technical vocational training center; 3 years, 1998-2006)

Hungary [edit]

Prior to World War I, secondary schools were often referred to with the word as the primary aim of preparing for higher education líceum.

In today's Hungarian, the most ubiquitous word for these institutions is gimnázium, but líceum lives on as an archaic word referring to schools of high standing and revered traditions, especially Calvinist boarding schools.

Italy [edit]

The Lyceum is considered by the toughest and most prestigious secondary schools in Italy.

The term Liceo refers to a number of upper secondary schools,[11] which last 5 years (from 14 to 19 years old) and specialize in teaching math, ancient Greek and Latin. There is preparation for university. It is divided into four different industries, each specializing in specific topics:

  • Liceo Classico (classical lyceum) is the most diverse between them, but it is known for its focus on history, ancient Greek and Latin.
  • Liceo Scientifico (Scientific Lyceum) focuses on mathematics, physics, biology and chemistry.
  • Liceo Linguistico (Language Lyceum) mainly focuses on a certain number of languages. It is up to each school to decide which language to teach, but Italian and English are always present.
  • Liceo Artistico (Art Lyceum) focuses on art history and practical art (from drawing to painting to sculpture).

Latvia [edit]

The first Lyceum in Riga was founded in 1675 by the Swedish King Charles XI. (In Latin) founded. Carolina School) and was renamed the Imperial Lyceum of Riga. Imperial Lyceum in Riga) 1733. In September 1921, the Riga French Lycée was founded in Riga, an upper secondary school supported by the French government. 1989, during the Latvian National Awakening, the Pushkin Lyceum of Riga (Puškina licejs) with educational programs in Russian was established. In 2002 another Russian high school was founded in Daugavpils (Daugavpils Krievu vidusskola - licejs), renamed Daugavpils High School of Technologies (Daugavpils Tehnoloģiju vidusskola - licejs) in 2020.

Lithuania [edit]

Some gyms are called licėjuse.g. Vilnius Lyceum.

Malta [edit]

Junior Lyceums refer to state schools in secondary education.

Republic of Moldova [edit]

Until recently, the Lyceum - called Liceu - in the Republic of Moldova was an educational institution where students studied from first to twelfth grades and graduated from high school after graduation. In most cases, the lycees specialized in a specific area (art, theater, language) relevant to the personality whose name the institution bore. In other respects it was little different from a regular school, with the exception of slightly higher educational standards and supposedly more prestige. After 2010, all regular schools were officially converted to lycees, although their quality remained at the same level as before and most did not receive any specialization, which is why they were called “theory lycees” (“Liceu Teoretic”). One reason for the 2010 reform was to reduce the influence of the Soviet-Russian education system and / or mentality in Moldova.

Netherlands [edit]

In the Netherlands, a lyceum is a selective secondary school for children aged 12 to 18 that offers “voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs” (vwo) and “hoger algemeen voortgezet onderwijs” (havo), the highest and middle secondary schools in this country. Successful graduation enables two students to be admitted to the university and two students to the college, comparable to a vocational university. The term Lyceum is sometimes used for other vocational schools such as the Grafisch Lyceum, or Muzieklyceum Amsterdamfrom which the Conservatorium van Amsterdam emerged.

Poland [edit]

The Liceum is the Polish secondary school. Polish liceums are attended by children aged 15-19-21 (see list below). Before graduation, students undergo a final exam Matura.

There are several types of Polish lice:

Portugal [edit]

From 1836 to 1978 in the Portuguese educational system the Lyceum (Portuguese: Liceu) or national lyceum (Portuguese: liceu nacional) was a high school that prepared students for entry into university or more general education. On the other hand, the technical school (Portuguese: escola técnica) was a technical school.

After several educational reforms, all these schools merged into a single system of primary and secondary schools of the 3rd cycle (Portuguese: escolas básicas do 3.º ciclo e secundárias) and offered grades 7 to 12.

Romania [edit]

The Romanian word for lyceum is Liceu. It is a post-secondary form of education. In order for a student to graduate from high school and take a high school diploma, they must pass the Bac. The Lyceum consists of four school years (15-19). Although the Lyceum is a pre-university educational institution, it may be enough for the graduates to find a job, mostly as an office job.

Russia [edit]

In Imperial Russia, a lyceum was one of the following higher education institutions: Demidov Lyceum of Law in Yaroslavl (1803), Alexander Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo (1810), Richelieu Lyceum in Odessa (1817), and Imperial Katkov Lyceum in Moscow (1867)).

The Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum was opened on October 19, 1811 in the neoclassical building designed by Vasily Stasov next to the Catherine Palace. The first graduates were all brilliant and included Aleksandr Pushkin and Alexander Gorchakov. The opening date was celebrated every year with carousels and celebrations, and Pushkin composed new verses for each of these occasions. In January 1844 the lyceum was moved to Saint Petersburg.

In 33 years of existence of the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum there were 286 graduates. The most famous of these were Anton Delwig, Wilhelm Küchelbecher, Nicholas de Giers, Dmitri Tolstoy, Jakow Karlowitsch Grot, Nikolaj Jakowlewitsch Danilewski, Alexei Lobanow-Rostowski and Michail Saltykow-Shchedrin.

Serbia [edit]

The Lyceum of the Principality of Serbia was the first university in Serbia where education was taught in Serbian. It was founded in 1838 on the initiative of Prince Miloš Obrenović in Kragujevac, the capital of Serbia at that time. When Belgrade became the Serbian capital in 1841, the Serbian Lyceum was opened there. In 1863 it became known as Grandes écoles until it officially changed its name to Belgrade University in 1905.

Ukraine [edit]

According to the Ukrainian Law “On Education”, Lyceum is an upper secondary education (or a structural unit of another educational institution) that offers field-specific secondary education.[12] As planned, a three-year high school has been a lyceum for academic or professional training since 2027. In the vocational school, a student masters his first job, while in an academic lyceum he deepens his personal knowledge of certain subjects that are further studied at a university. Graduates from academic lyceums can obtain a bachelor's degree in three (in most subject areas) instead of four years.[13]

Nowadays, one of the types of high schools in Ukraine is military high schools and high schools with intensive military and physical training.

North America [edit]

United States [edit]

See Lyceum Movement. Thoreau speaks of lectures at a high school in “Life without a Principle”. See Comparison of Secondary School Years in the US and UK (Excluding Scotland)

South America [edit]

Chile [edit]

It is not uncommon to use the word in Chile Liceo when referring to a high school. Another term is “enseñanza media” (secondary education); however, Liceo is the most common term due to Chile's extensive European influence.[citation needed]

See also [edit]

References [edit]

  • Xoxi, Koli (1997), Liceu Kombëtar i Korçës (1917-1939) (in Albanian), Shtëpia Botuese “Lumo Skëndo”, OCLC 45500476
  • Osmani, Shefik (1983), Fjalor i pedagogjisë (in Albanian), Shtëpia Botuese “8 Nëntori”, OCLC 17442147

External links [edit]

  • International students from Lyceum College of Medicine www.lyceumnorthwesternuniversity.com