What vocations are there in NS

Culture of remembrance
Current status of the Nazi reappraisal

Many Germans consider themselves well informed about National Socialism, but they actually have gaps in knowledge regarding the groups of victims, the extent of perpetrators in German society during the Nazi era and in their awareness of the continuities of current misanthropic acts and attitudes.

The "Multidimensional Memory Monitor" (MEMO) states that 20 percent of those questioned associate right-wing extremist terror, such as the attacks by the National Socialist Underground (NSU) or the attack in Hanau last year, with Nazi history. In addition, however, 46 percent of the respondents said they abstained or would see no connection between current events and National Socialism.

MEMO explores the German culture of remembrance in relation to the time of National Socialism. In addition to precise knowledge of the victims and perpetrators of the Nazi era, topics also include the relationship to today. For example, the monitor investigates the question of whether the belief in conspiracy narratives and the relativization of historical facts are related.

History revision and Corona

According to the study, 90 percent of those questioned reacted with rejection to comparisons between the suffering of the German population during the corona pandemic and the suffering of people during the Nazi era. In the meantime, however, it is becoming clear that those interviewees who believed more strongly in conspiracy narratives are less informed about history and are more inclined to take a historical revisionist perspective.

Prof. Dr. Andreas Zick, head of the Institute for Interdisciplinary Research on Conflict and Violence (IKG) at Bielefeld University, which publishes the study, comments: "MEMO shows that people who believe conspiracy stories were more likely to relieve the population of responsibility during the Nazi era Equating the suffering of the Nazi victims with that of the perpetrators and doubting the persecution of the Jews ".

New forms of discussion

Knowing about Nazi injustice is not an end in itself, it strengthens social cohesion and helps to combat historical revisionism. In addition to established methods of communication - such as non-fiction books, films and memorials - new, digital access is increasingly being offered. This is also done in order to react to the death of contemporary witnesses. In the survey, younger people showed themselves to be more open to new forms of confrontation: the respondents were open to talking to digital contemporary witnesses (40 percent), discussing podcasts (27 percent) or virtual tours of concentration camp memorials (26 Percent). Across all the inquiries, however, there was also a high proportion of those who were not interested in new entrances, especially among the older respondents. So it remains important to provide a variety of offers for education in order to reach as many people as possible.

The data on which the study is based was collected by the Ipsos survey institute on behalf of the IKG. This year's survey is the fourth edition of the "Multidimensional Memory Monitor". 1,000 randomly selected people were surveyed by telephone between December 2020 and January 2021. The respondents were between 16 and 87 years old.