What is a nuclear detonation device
Technical ammunition of the Russian armed forces. Purpose and characteristics of the types of technical barriers. Extended standard explosive charges of the SZ series
In the past few decades, extensive measures to improve conventional weapons have been taken in the armies of industrialized countries, among which the development of weapons played an important role. The structure of technical weapons includes technical ammunition, which creates the best conditions for the effective use of all types of weapons and the protection of their troops from modern weapons, making it difficult for the enemy to inflict significant losses on them. The use of technical ammunition in recent local conflicts has shown that it is playing an increasingly important role in solving operational and tactical tasks.
The engineering troops were armed with remote mining systems that made it possible to place mines on enemy territory during a battle and at a considerable distance from the leading edge. Technical ammunition also makes it possible to create conditions for troops to quickly overcome enemy minefields. In this case, the most promising volumetric explosive ammunition is used.
What is related to technical ammunition? These are primarily mines for various purposes - anti-tank, anti-personnel, anti-amphibious and anti-helicopter mines, as well as demining and a range of auxiliary cargoes. A modern mine is a multifunctional device. Some samples of new mines contain an element of artificial intelligence and can optimize the selection of a target from several and its attack.
Particularly noteworthy are anti-personnel mines, the ban of which has started a campaign by states that want to finally disarm Russia. Due to the sharp decline in the number of armed forces, the role of technical ammunition is increasing. In view of the fact that technical ammunition mainly plays a defensive role, our political and military leadership should not disarm but contribute to improving and increasing the effectiveness of this type of weapon, which is sufficiently reliable and has a high performance in terms of "efficiency - cost" The general direction and aim of the development of technical weapons are largely determined by the ability to use modern and promising targets effectively in the interests of the ground forces.
Take into account the features and technical characteristics of technical ammunition.
Until recently, the industrialized countries produced a large number of anti-tank mines of various types from the multitude of existing types, of which three main types can be distinguished: lane protection, ground protection and side protection.
Until recently, anti-track mines were considered fundamental, but they are gradually becoming less important. The main disadvantage of these mines is their limited combat capability: usually only individual units of the tank landing gear are deactivated. Even so, there are still relatively large numbers of anti-track mines in the troops of various countries.
Anti-track mines are designed to destroy tracked and wheeled combat and transport vehicles by mainly destroying or damaging their chassis (chains, wheels). The installation of these mines is carried out with layers of mines or manually (both in the ground and on the surface). Anti-tracked house mines have a cylindrical shape, with the exception of the TM-62D mine, which is in the shape of a parallelepiped. The main features of the domestic anti-track mines are shown in Table 1, and the foreign ones in Table 2. Figure I, 2 shows the construction diagrams of the mines TM-46 and TM-62T. Anti-track mines are equipped with mechanical fuses that are screwed into the central slot of the hull. The pressure on the fuse from the tank rail is transmitted through the pressure cover. There are slots for additional safeguards in the side and bottom parts of the mine hull. They are used when mines need to be placed in a fixed position. The housings and fuses of modern mines are basically made of plastic so that they cannot be detected with induction mine detectors. Due to the tightness of the mine hulls, most of them can be used to dismantle water hazards.
Fig. 1. Anti-Track Mine TM-46:
a) - appearance; b) - mine section; 1st case; 2 - membrane; 3 - cover; 4 - MVM fuse; 5 - explosive charge; 6 - intermediate donor; 7 - cap; 8 - handle.
Table 1The main features of anti-track mines
|Mine||Weight (kg||BB type||Dimensions Ø x height, mm||Body material|
|TM-46||8,5||5,7||T.||300 x 109||steel|
|TM-56||107||7.0||T.||316 x 109||steel|
|TM-57||8,7||5,9||T.||316 x 108||steel|
|. .8,8 ,||7,0||TGA-16|
|TM-62M||9.0||7.18||T.||320 x 90||steel|
|TM-62D||11.7-||8.7-||340 x 340 x 110||Wood|
|TM-62P||11.0||8,0||T.||340 x 80||plastic|
|TM-62P2||8.6||7.0||T.||320 x 90||plastic|
|TM-62PZ||7,2||6,3||T.||320 x 90||plastic|
|TM-62T||8,5||7,0||T.||320 x 90||the clothing|
Table 2Foreign anti-track mines
|Mine||Country of origin||Weight (kg||Dimensions, mm||Body material|
|general||explosive charge||diameter (length x x width)||the height|
|M19||United States||1?,6||9,53||332 x 332||94||plastic|
|M56||United States||3,4||1.7||250 x 120||100||aluminum|
Table 3Foreign flood mines
|Mine||Country of origin||Weight (kg||Dimensions, mm||Body material|
|general||explosive charge||diameter (length x x width)||the height|
|M70 M73||United States||2.2||0.7||127||76||steel|
|AT 2 O'CLOCK||FRG||2,0||0.7||100||130||steel|
|Missile defense||France||6.0||2.0||280 x 165||105||plastic|
|SB-MV / T FFV028||Italy||5,0||2,6||235||100||plastic|
Fig. 2. Anti-Track Mine TM-62T:
1 building; 2 - explosive charge; 3 - ignition glass; 4 - MVP-62 fuse; 5 - Fuse Drummer; 6 - controller of the ignition glass; 7 - backup transfer fee; 8 - fuse cap igniter.
In terms of equipment, domestic mines are "omnivores". They are equipped with TNT (T), mixtures A-IX2, MS, TM; Alloys TGA-16, TG-40; Ammotole A-50, A-80, etc.
The data in Table 1 shows that most of the anti-track mines presented are of significant size and high explosive mass.
The most interesting is the British anti-track mine L9AI, which has an elongated shape (its dimensions are 1200x100x80 mm). For the device of an anti-tank minefield, such mines are twice less required than mines with a cylindrical body. Elongated mines are more convenient to store and transport. The body of the L9A1 mine is made of plastic. The pressure cap is on the top of the housing and is two thirds of its length. A pulled minelayer is used to install this mine in the ground or on its surface.
Several models of anti-track mines have been developed in a number of countries for remote mining systems designed to defeat the chassis of a tank in the event of a contact explosion. These mines are relatively small and light.
The M56 anti-track mine (USA) is part of a helicopter mining system. The mine body has the shape of a half cylinder and is equipped with four drop-down stabilizers, which reduce the rate of fall of the mine (mining takes place from a height of approx. 30 m). A pressure cover is located on the flat surface of the case. An electromechanical fuse is located at the end of the body and has two levels of protection. The first is removed when the mine leaves the cassette installation, the second - two minutes after it fell to the ground. In the fighting position, the mine can be rotated both up and down through the pressure cover. The fuse is equipped with a self-destruct element, which after a certain time leads to a mine explosion. Mine M56 is produced in three versions. The mines of the first (main) version are equipped with a single-cycle fuse, the second with a two-cycle fuse, which is triggered by repeatedly pressing the pressure cover. The detonator in the mine of the third version is activated by shaking the body of the mine or changing its position. The mines of the last two options are designed to prevent the enemy from manually removing them from the passages or from driving them through the minefield with roller trawls.
The West German AT-1 mines are loaded with 110 mm cluster munitions from the MLRS "Lars". Each ammunition contains 8 mines equipped with a fuse, elements of harmlessness and self-destruct.
In Italy, several models of anti-track mines designed to be installed by helicopter systems have been developed, including the SB-81 mine with a plastic body and an electromechanical fuse with a pressure sensor. In addition to helicopters, this mine can be installed with a mine-layer.
Anti-ground mines have a significantly higher lethality compared to anti-track mines. They exploded under the bottom of the tank and hit it, beating the crew and disabling the vehicle's weapons and equipment. The explosion of such a mine under the trail of a tank renders it out of order. Anti-ground mines are equipped with a shaped charge or a charge based on the principle of a shock core. Most anti-ground mines have proximity fuses with magnetic sensors that detect changes in the magnetic field as the tank moves over the mine. Such a fuse is installed in the Swedish anti-ground mine FFV028. When a tank drives over a mine, an electrical voltage is applied to an electric detonator, which sets off an explosion of the spoil, and then (with some time lag) and the main charge (the penetration of the armor into the mine from a distance of 0.5 ) m is 70 mm). When the overload is triggered, the upper part of the fuse, the cover of the mine body and the masking layer of the soil fall off, creating favorable conditions for the formation of a shock core. A typical layout diagram of the SB-MV / T anti-ground mine is shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Structure of the anti-tank mine SB-MV / T: 1 - magnetic sensor; 2 - power supply; 3 - program element of the mine neutralization device; 4 seismic sensor; 5 - device for delaying the transfer of the fuse to the ignition position; 6 - lever for moving the fuse to the ignition position; 7 - fuse activation element; 8 - main fee; 9 - temporary charge; 10 - detonator; 11 - primer; 12 - Congestion Fee.
The French HPD anti-ground mine is equipped with a fuse with magnetic and seismic sensors. The armor penetration of the mine from a distance of 0.5 m is 70 mm. The mine explodes if both sensors are triggered at the same time. An additional (overload) charge was used to drop the hull cover and the camouflage layer of the floor in the HPD mine. Mining with these mines is done with a mine-layer.
Particular attention is paid to the development of anti-ground mines for remote mining systems. For example, in the United States, dispersed anti-debris mines have been created using artillery and aircraft dismantling systems (M70, M73, and BLU-91 / B mines). These mines are small and equipped with proximity fuses with magnetic sensors and anti-handling devices. The M70 and M73 mines are part of the anti-tank system of the RAAMS artillery (for 155 mm howitzers). The cluster hulls of this system contain nine M70 or M73 mines, the charges of which are directed in opposite directions, which does not require any special orientation on the ground surface. These mines are identical in construction and only differ in the time of self-destruction.
Table 4The effectiveness of anti-track and anti-bottom mines
|Anti-track mine effectiveness||The effectiveness of the anti-soil mine|
|The tank is immobile;||The tank is devoid of mobility and firepower;|
|- the caterpillar is damaged;||- the bottom is punched;|
|- damaged pulley and suspension,||- The units in the tank are severely damaged by a mine detonation and ammunition detonation.|
|- The crew is shocked, but some of them are ready to fight.||- The crew is completely disabled.|
|- saved firepower;||- Repair (if at all possible) in the factory.|
|- On-site repairs are possible|
The West German anti-ground mine AT-2 is intended for the defense of anti-tank obstacles with ground, missile and aerospace mining systems. The mine has a warhead based on the principle of a shock core.
The comparative effectiveness of anti-track and anti-bottom mines is shown in Fig. 4 and Table 4.
Anti-side mines are designed to destroy tanks and armored vehicles at a distance of several tens of meters. These mines are effective in blocking roads and creating barriers in forests and settlements. The noticeable element in anti-aircraft mines is a shock core or a cumulative anti-tank grenade that is fired from a guide tube.
The French and British armies are armed with the MAN F1 mine (Fig. 5), which, based on the principle of a shock core, has a warhead (armor penetration 70 mm from a distance of 40 m). The mine body can be rotated in a vertical plane relative to the carrier, which consists of two posts and a support ring. The fuse is fed by a 40 meter long contact wire.
The American anti-aircraft mine M24 consists of an 88.9 mm grenade (from the M29 anti-tank rifle), a guide tube, a fuse with a contact sensor in the form of a tape, a power source and connecting wires. The guide tube acts as a container in which the mine is stored and transported. Place the installation at a distance of approx. 30 m from the street or the passageway. When the track of the tank hits the contact tape, the safety circuit closes and the anti-tank grenade is fired. An improved model of this mine, the M66, was developed. It differs from the M24 in that. that infrared and seismic sensors are used instead of a contact sensor. The mines are brought into the firing position after the earthquake sensor is triggered. It also includes an infrared aiming sensor. The grenade is fired as soon as the armored target crosses the transmitter-receiver line.
Anti-tank minefields (ATMF) are mainly installed in tank danger areas in front of the front, on the flanks and intersections of sub-units, as well as in the depths to cover artillery firing positions, command and observation posts and other objects. An anti-tank minefield usually has dimensions along the front of 200 ... 300 m and more, in depth - 60 ... 120 m and more. The mines are installed in three to four rows with a distance between the rows of 20 ... 40 m, and between the mines in a row - 4 ... 6 m for anti-track mines and 9 ... 12 m for Anti-ground mines. The consumption of mines per 1 km minefield is 550 ... 750 anti-caterpillar or 300 ... 400 anti-ground mines. In particularly important areas, PTMG1 can be installed with increased mine consumption: up to 1000 or more anti-track or 500 or more anti-bottom mines. These minefields are commonly referred to as extended minefields.
Fig. 5. Structure of the anti-side mine MAN F1:
1 charge; 2 - copper sheath; 3 - support ring; 4 - igniter cap; 5 - fuse; 6 - power supply; 7 - temporary charge; 8 - detonator.
Fig. 4. Comparative effectiveness of the destructive effect of anti-grenade and anti-caterpillar mines:
1 - anti-ground mine action zone;
2 - the area of action of the anti-track mine.
Table 5Foreign anti-aircraft mines
|Mine||Country of origin||Weight (kg||Dimensions, mm||Body material|
|general||explosive charge||diameter||the height|
|M24, M66||United States||10,8||0,9||89||609||steel|
Anti-personnel mines have various designs and are mainly highly explosive or fragmented. The main characteristics of some samples from domestic anti-personnel mines are shown in Table 6. The name MON-50 means that this mine has a fragmentation-directed action. These mines are in use in different countries. Plastic bodies of such mines are usually manufactured in the form of a curved prism into which a charge of a plastic explosive with a large number of fragments is introduced. To facilitate installation on the surface of the earth, there are folding legs at the bottom of the mine body. The most common method of activating a mine is to use a standard cocking safety device that triggers when the target hits the cocked wire. When a mine explodes, a shallow jet of debris forms. Fragment-controlled mines are supposed to defeat personnel who move in deployed combat formations.
The PMN index means that this mine is an anti-person push action. The device of the PMN anti-personnel mine is shown in Fig. 6.
Anti-personnel mines with fragmented fragmentation are now widely used.The operation of such a mine occurs when a walking person touches a tension wire or when pressure is exerted on special conductors connected by an explosive chain. As a result, an ejecting powder charge is ignited, with the help of which the mine is thrown at chest level of a walking person, where an explosion and damage to the people in that zone occurs.
Antipersonnel minefields (APMF) to be built in front of the leading edge and usually before anti-tank minefields to cover them. They can come from high-explosive mines, fragmentations and also in combination from high-explosive mines and fragmentation mines. PPMP are set with a length along the front of 30 to 300 m and more at a depth of 10 to 50 m and more, depending on the intended use. The number of rows in a minefield is usually two to four, the distance between rows is 5 m or more, between mines in a row at least 1 m for high explosives, and one or two of the radius of continuous destruction for fragmentation mines. The consumption of mines per 1 km of minefield is calculated as follows: highly explosive - 2000 ... 3000 pieces; Fragmentation - 100 ... 300 pcs. In areas where the infantry is advancing in large numbers, PPMPs can be installed with increased efficiency - with a double or triple flow rate of min.
Table 6Main features of anti-personnel mines
|Mine||Weight (kg||BB type||Dimensions mm||Body material|
|general||explosive charge||(Length x x width)||the height|
|MON-50||2,0||0.7||PVV-5A||225 x 153||54||plastic|
|MOH-90||12,4||6.5||PVV-5A||343 x 202||153||plastic|
Fig. 6. Anti-personnel mine PMN:
a) - general view; b) - section; 1st case; 2 - shield; 3 - cap; 4 - wire or tape; 5 - warehouse; 6 - spring; 7 - split ring; 8 - drummer; 9 - main spring; 10 - stubborn sleeve; 11 - security check; 12 - metal element; 13 - explosive charge; 14 - MD-9 fuse; 15 - connector; 16 - cap; 17 - seal; 18 - metal frame; 19-string.
Table 7The main features of anti-amphibious mines
|Mine||Weight (kg||BB type||Dimensions mm||Body material|
|general||explosive charge||(Length x x width)||the height|
Table 8Main features of specialty mines
|Mine||Weight (kg||BB type||Dimensions, mm||Body material|
|general||explosive charge||(Length x x width)||the height|
|MPM||0.74||0,3||TG-50||148 x 72||46||plastic|
|SPM||2,35||0,93||MC||248 x 114||72||steel|
Fig. 7. Mine PDM-2 at a low level:
1 - barbell; 2 - check; 3 - fuse; 4 - case with explosive charge; 5 - lock nut; 6 - bopt; 7 - flange; 8 - skylight; 9 - sub light; 10 - sheet steel; 11 - washing machine; 12 - lock; 13 - handle; 14 - video.
Fig. 8. My body PDM-2:
1st case; 2 - central neck; 3-glass; 4 - intermediate igniter; 5 - side neck; 6 - nipple; 7 - charge; 8 - seals; 9 - connector.
Fig. 9. Charge S3-3L:
a) - general view; b) - section; 1st case; 2 - explosive charge; 3 - detonator; 4 - ignition socket for the igniter cover; 5 - socket for a special fuse; 6 - connector; 7 - handle; 8 - rings to tie the cargo.
1st case; 2 - cumulative fairing; 3 - explosive charge; 4 - intermediate igniter; 5 - replacement socket; 6 - handle; 7 - retractable legs; 8 - cork.
Fig. 10. Charge C3-6M:
1 - nylon sheath; 2 - polyethylene sheath; 3 - cargo of plastic explosives; 4 - intermediate igniter; 5 - rubber couplings; 6 - metal brackets; 7 - socket for a primer cap; 8 - socket for a special fuse; 9 - connector; 10 - union nut; 11 - rings to tie the cargo.
The engineering troops of the industrialized countries currently have nuclear mines with a TNT equivalent of 2 to 1000 tons.
Foreign experts assess the effectiveness of nuclear mines and believe that they can be used as a multipurpose means of combating the advancing enemy forces. It is believed that the explosion of nuclear mines in special concrete or earth wells creates zones of destruction and contamination that can dismember the combat formations of enemy forces and direct their advance into areas favorable to conventional and nuclear strikes. An important area for the use of nuclear mines is the strengthening of the explosion barriers of mines in tank-endangered areas. The protective effect of nuclear mines is based on the formation of craters, rubble, zones of destruction and contamination as a result of explosions, which are a serious obstacle on the path of troop movement.
The crater from the explosion of a nuclear mine is an insurmountable obstacle, since its size, steep slopes and rapid water filling significantly impede the movement of not only vehicles but also tanks.
The dimensions of the craters depend on the TNT equivalent of the atomic mines, the depth of their placement and detonation methods. When a mine with a capacity of 1.2 kt explodes on the surface of the earth, a crater is created with a diameter of 27 m and a depth of 6.4 m. The same charge, which detonates at a depth of 5 m, forms a funnel with it a diameter of 79 m and a depth of 16 m and a depth of 20 m - a diameter of 89 m and a depth of 27.5 m Protection The effect of a nuclear mine explosion is intensified by the large-scale precipitation of radioactive fallout.
Anti-amphibian mines are used to dismantle aqueducts in areas where troops are likely to land, to destroy amphibious amphibious vehicles, and to combat transport vehicles. The main features of these mines are shown in Table 7. A distinctive feature is their use underwater.
The device of the anti-landing mines and their main components are shown in Fig. 7, 8 using the example of the PDM-2 mine.
For the dismantling of railroad tracks (ZhDM-6), highways (ADM-7, ADM-8) and solving other specific tasks, special mines are used (Table 8). Mines MPM, SPM, BIM have the property of "sticking" (using a magnet or adhesive material) and have a quasi-cumulative lining to form significant holes in the barriers.
Extended demining fees are used for passages in anti-tank and mine protection fields (Table 9). They are approached manually or mechanically or brought into a minefield with jet engines. Therefore, explosive charges are placed in metal pipes or in flexible fabric or plastic sleeves (hoses). The charges UZ-1, UZ-2, UZ-Z and UZ-ZR are metal pipes into which pressed TNT blocks are inserted. The charge UZ-67 consists of a sleeve (material - nylon-based fabric), in which TNT blocks with explosives of the A-IX-1 type are strung on a flexible hose. The charges UZP-72 and UZP-77 are based on a flexible rope with coiled layers of a plastic charge made of PVV-7, which are arranged in a sleeve made of special fabric.
Table 9Main features of elongated demining charges
|Mine||Weight (kg||BB type||Dimensions (edit)||mm||Body material|
|general||explosive charge||(Length x width x)||the height|
|UZ-Z||43||8 kg / p. m.||T.||53||1950||steel|
|UZ-67||55.5||41,6||T + A-XI -1||80||10 500||steel|
Note: RPM - running meters.
Table 10The main characteristics of flat fees
|Mine||Weight (kg||BB type||Dimensions (edit)||mm||Body material|
|general||explosive charge||(Length x x width)||the height|
|SZ-1||1,4||1,0||T.||65 x 116||126||steel|
|NW-W||3.7||3.0||T.||65 x 171||337||steel|
|SZ-ZA||3,/||2,8||T.||98 x 142||200||steel|
|SZ-6||7,3||5.9||T.||98 x 142||395||steel|
Table 11The main features of shaped charges
|Mine||Weight (kg||BB type||Dimensions mm||material|
|general||explosive charge||(Length x x width)||height|
|KZU||18,0||12,0||TG-50||195 x 225||500||steel|
|0,56||0,185||TG-40||76 x 70||1507||steel|
|KZU-1||0,0||032||TG-40||85 x 105||160||steel|
Table 12Properties of TNT sticks
Table 13Properties of plastic explosives detectors
Table 14Properties of the detonating cord
Fig. 12. Shaped charge KZU-2:
a) - longitudinal section; b) - cross section; 1 - foam insert; 2 - explosive charge (TG-40); 3. Case; 4 - cork; 5 - seal; 6 - socket; 7 - seal; 8-glass; 9 - Examiner BB A-XI-1; 10 - cap; 11 - ring; 12 - lock; 13 - bar; 14 - bracket; 15 - leaf spring; 16 - magnet; 17 - cumulative fairing; 18 - clamp.
Fig. 13. Charge installation diagrams KZU-2 (the arrow indicates the installation location of the electrical igniter or electrical fuse)
To carry out blasting work in emergency situations, for example, when it is necessary to build a homemade mine in the shortest possible time, concentrated charges are used (Table 10). The charges SZ-ZA (Fig. 9), SZ-6, SZ-6M (Fig. 10) can be used for blasting under water. It should be noted that the charges SZ-ZA, SZ-6 and SZ-6M can be used successfully in underwater blasting operations.
Shaped charges (Table 11) are used to pierce or cut thick metal plates during the destruction of armored and reinforced concrete defense structures.
The design and elements of the shaped charges KZ-2, KZU-2 are shown in Fig. 11-13.
In the technical troops for blasting work, TNT and plastic explosives are used in the form of inspectors, the main characteristics of which are shown in the table. 12.13.
Detonating cords are often used to transmit an explosion pulse during explosions in the engineering forces (Table 14).
Of all the ammunition used in the Russian Army, technical ammunition is notable in that it is a dual-use ammunition, i.e. H. can be used in blasting operations in the national economy to solve specific problems in the mining, metallurgy and oil industries. Because of this, no funding is required to sell them. Technical ammunition that has reached the end of its useful life should be handed over to civil blasting organizations (e.g. in mining). Meanwhile, metallurgical plants have accumulated million tons of so-called scrubs, where it is large-scale multi-ton objects with a significant iron content. Due to the crisis in our metallurgical industry, these scrubs can serve as a good source of raw materials. However, for obvious reasons, such scrubs cannot be transported and loaded in blast furnaces, i.e. cutting is required. In this case, technical ammunition is an indispensable tool in solving this problem. In this case, the technology for cutting such a scrub is as follows. The detonation of a shaped charge (KZ-1, KZ-2, KZ-4) creates a crater in the undergrowth (of considerable depth and diameter), which is filled with explosives and detonated. As a result of these measures, the peeling is destroyed into parts that can be transported and loaded into the blast furnace. This is just one of thousands of examples of the use of technical ammunition in the national economy.
The creation of a new generation of highly effective technical ammunition with a dual purpose will ensure, on the one hand, the fighting of the ground troops and, on the other hand, their use in the national economy (after their service life has expired) will save the financial resources of our state considerably.
Technical ammunition - means for the manufacture of weapons containing explosives and pyrotechnic compositions. They were divided into detonators, explosive charges and technical mines.
Explosive (BB) - a single chemical substance or a mixture of several substances that can explode spontaneously or as a result of external influences, releasing heat and forming strongly heated gases. Depending on the chemical composition and the external conditions, explosives can become reaction products in the modes slow (deflagration) combustion, fast (explosive) combustion or detonation. Traditionally, explosives also include compounds and mixtures that do not detonate but burn at a certain rate (propellant powder, pyrotechnic compositions). pyrotechnicsthe substance is said to produce an effect in the form of heat, fire, sound or smoke or a combination thereof as a result of self-sustaining exothermic chemical reactions that occur without detonation.
The properties of explosives include: the rate of explosion transformation (rate of detonation or rate of burn); Detonation pressure; Heat of explosion (specific heat); Composition and volume of gas products of explosive transformation; Maximum temperature of explosion products (explosion temperature); Sensitivity to external influences; critical detonation diameter; critical detonation density.
Explosives are classified according to a number of characteristics.
They differ according to their composition: individual chemical compounds and explosive mixtures-composite materials. The explosives also contain various regulating additives to alter physical and chemical processes.
After physical state: gaseous; Liquid; gelatinous; Suspension; Emulsion and solid. In military affairs, solid explosives were mainly used: monolithic (tol), powdery (hexogenic), granular (ammonium nitrate explosive), plastic, elastic. Plastic explosives were a relatively new type and were used on a limited scale and in England, Germany and the United States. In Germany three types of plastic explosives were produced under the brand name "Hexoplast". For example, known "Hexoplast-75" which contains 75% RDX, 20% liquid mixture of dinitrotoluene, 3.7% TNT and 1.3% nitrocellulose. In England, plastic explosives were produced under the designation "PE-2", consisting of 87.7% RDX, 6.2% mineral oil, 4.1% paraffin oil, 0.5% lecithin and 1.5% carbon black. The soot was a modifier to prevent the spread of oil at elevated temperatures typical of the tropics. "PE-2" was widely used by British special forces against Germany. In the United States, plastic explosives based on the British were manufactured under the designations "C-1" and "C-2". It contained 77% RDX and 23% plasticizer - a eutectic mixture of 12% dinitrotoluene, 5% TNT, 2.7% mononitrotoluene, 0.3% nitrocellulose, and 1% residual solvent - dimethylformamide.
They are distinguished by the form of the explosion: initiate (primary) and detonate (secondary). The triggering of explosives should stimulate explosive transformations in charges of other explosives. They were characterized by increased sensitivity and easily exploded from simple initial impulses (impact, friction, stab, electrical spark). They were based on: explosive mercury, lead azide, lead trinitroresorcinate, tetrazene, diazodinitrophenol and other substances with a high detonation speed (over 5000 m / s). In the military, they were used to equip primers, capsule sockets, detonators, various electric igniters, artillery and detonators, electric detonators, etc. They were also used in various pyroautomatischen means: Pyro-charge cartridges Pyro, Pyro-locks, Pyro-pushers, catapults, explosive bolts and nuts, Pyro-cutter, self-destroyer. Jet substances had a high speed of propagation of the pressure wave in the substance. They are less sensitive to external influences, and the stimulation of explosive transformations in them was carried out with the help of the initiation of explosives. Various nitro compounds (TNT, nitromethane, nitronaphthalenes), N-nitramines (Tetryl, RDX, HMX), alcohol nitrates (nitroglycerin, nitroglycol), cellulose nitrates, etc., were usually used as explosives in the form of mixtures with each other and with other substances. Many of these compounds are also explosive and can detonate under certain conditions.
According to the method of making explosive charges, they were divided into: pressed, cast (explosive alloys) and patronized.
During the Second World War, more than 10 million tons of explosives of all kinds were released in the warring countries.
explosive - special mechanisms and devices for exciting (triggering) the explosion of explosive charges and technical mines. These included detonator caps, detonator caps, electric detonators, electric detonators, detonation and safety cables, fire pipes, primers and mine safety devices. According to the principle of action, mechanical, electrical, radio-technical and chemical explosives were distinguished. They could act instantly and slowly.
Depending on the source of the transmission of the initial impulse to the explosive charge, the detonation means were divided into four groups: fire detonation means (ignition caps, fire cords, incendiary cartridges and igniters for fire cords); electric detonation devices (electric detonators, connecting wires, power sources and instruments); Means for electric fire ignition: (ignition caps, fire strings and electric igniters); Means for detonation with detonating cords (detonating cord and means for igniting fire, electric or electric fire).
Under igniter understood a primer, similar to the primer of a small cartridge, the power of which is sufficient to trigger the detonation of an explosive directly or by means of a fuse or fuse.
Detonator capsule - A device for triggering the detonation of explosives from a fuse. It was a metal envelope (steel, copper, aluminum) or a paper envelope filled with explosives. The bottom of the sleeve can be flat or concave (with a cumulative funnel). About 2/3 of its length was filled with an explosive, the unfilled part was used to insert a fuse.
Electric detonator a device representing an incandescent lamp to which a droplet of combustible composition is applied. When a current flows through it, the droplet will immediately burn out, causing the primary ignition explosive to detonate or the core of the fuse to ignite. Usually the electric detonator was part of the electric detonator. Electric igniters were used more often in blasting. Their advantage was the generation of an explosion from any distance, which ensured the simultaneous detonation of charges, as well as at series intervals, etc. The disadvantages of this blasting method were the complexity of preparing power grids, splicing wires, the risk of failed charges being cleared and exploding from stray currents, and the high cost of blasting equipment.
Electric detonator - a device for generating an initial detonation pulse and for triggering an explosive chemical reaction in the mass of the explosive charge. The electric igniter was ignited electrically. Electric detonators were divided into "sparks" and "incandescent lamps". In spark-electric igniters, the "activation" of the explosive occurred under the influence of the arc current flowing between special electrodes. In this case the "supply" voltage reached values on the order of several thousand volts. In "glowing" electric detonators, "activation" occurred under the influence of an electrical current flowing along the glowing bridge. According to the reaction time, electric detonators were divided into "instantaneous", "briefly delayed" and "slow". The electric detonator usually consisted of a detonator cap and an electric detonator. It was widely used to detonate electric detonators blasting machine (subversive) - portable power source. Its operating principle is based on the accumulation of electrical energy from a direct or alternating current source and its rapid release into the explosion network at the time of the explosion. There were such types of blasting machines: magnetoelectric, dynamoelectric, and capacitor. The latter are the most common.
Detonating cord - A device for transmitting an ignition pulse over a distance in order to stimulate detonation in explosive charges. The ignition pulse is usually excited by a detonator and transferred by the detonating cord to one, more often to several charges, which have to be triggered at the same time. The cord was also used to transfer impulses from one charge to another. It was an elastic waterproof hose, polymer or consisting of several thread or glass fiber braids with an explosive core. The detonation speed of many types and brands of detonation cords varies. The cord did not detonate on impact or open fire.
Fuse - a means of transmitting a fire impulse to a detonator cap or a powder charge. There were different types of cables: wick, stopin, safety cable. The wick was a cotton rope soaked in a solution of lead acetate or lead nitrate. The burning speed is only 1 cm in 2-3 minutes. Powder Stop - a bundle of cotton threads impregnated with potassium nitrate and coated on the outside with an acidic cream-like mixture of pulp pulp and glue. Burning speed ~ 4 cm / s.Enclosed in a paper tube (stop drive), it was used for the rapid transmission of fire, as its burning speed was more than 1 m / s.
All of these types of cords were susceptible to moisture, in addition, they gave weak force to the flame. The stop-in, which was covered with cellulose powder, was enclosed in a double textile braid in the safety cord, and the top layer, which served to protect against moisture, was impregnated with bitumen. Stopin ensured the stability of the combustion of the cord, the pulp strip sufficient flame resistance, double braid flexibility and integrity of the core, bitumen, as well as protection from moisture also enabled the powder gases to break through during the combustion and oxygen enter the combustion zone. However, the fuse cable had a number of disadvantages: it was extinguished in water, the burning rate was unstable, bitumen broke at low temperatures and lost its properties.
In later cords, the stop-in was replaced by a guide thread that was twisted from three cotton threads, each of which had a different impregnation. This ensured precise control of the burn rate of the cable. The pyrotechnic composition with which the string was filled did not require external oxygen and burned without an open flame. The outside diameter of the cord is 4-6 mm. The burning rate is approx. 1 cm / s. The transfer of the burn between the contact lengths of the cords was excluded.
Ignition tube - a device consisting of a detonator, which is fixed in the sleeve with a length of fire control cable, in order to set off a single explosive charge by fire or electric fire.
Fuse - Mechanical-chemical device for igniting the charge during the mine and blasting process. The backups take effect immediately or with a delay.
Fuse - a device for detonating the main charge of a mine. According to the functional principle, the fuses were divided into contact, remote, non-contact, command and also combined actions. Contact explosive devices should provide contact action, that is, triggering due to the contact of ammunition with a target or obstacle. According to the response time, contact backups have been divided into three types: Immediate (0.05-0.1 ms); Inertia (1-5 ms); delayed action (from microseconds to several days); Multiple installation (possibly not one, but several settings in the response time). Proximity fuses were used to ensure a non-contact action, that is, the detonation of the fuse due to the interaction with a target or obstacle without ammunition coming into contact with it. This included magnetic, radio, security and electromechanical fuses.
Explosive charges were constructed constructively (inspectors, briquettes, etc.) and determined by the volume and weight of the amount of explosives produced by the industry. They were intended for blasting operations to fortify positions and areas in frozen ground and rocks, place barriers and make passageways, and during the destruction and destruction of objects and structures. They are focused, elongated, and cumulative. Explosive charges usually have grenades, sockets for detonation, devices and devices for carrying and attaching to detonated objects. A fire or electrical method was typically used to detonate charges. Demining fees were provided for the establishment of passages in minefields.
Technical mines were explosive charges that were structurally combined with means for their detonation. They were intended for blasting mine-explosive obstacles, defeating the enemy's manpower and equipment, destroying roads and various structures.
Mines are classified according to a number of characteristics.
The mines were naturally divided into three main groups: anti-tank, anti-personnel and special. The special mines again included: anti-vehicle (railroad, road, airfield), anti-amphibians, object, signal, traps, special. It should be noted that anti-tank and anti-personnel mines had to be used by soldiers of all branches of the armed forces, and only pioneers worked with all other mines.
According to the method of causing damage, mines were divided into: highly explosive (caused by the force of the explosion); Fragmentation (damage inflicted by fragments of their body or finished lethal elements (bullets, rollers, arrows); cumulative (inflicted defeat with a cumulative beam or shock core).
Guided and unguided mines were distinguished according to the degree of controllability. The essence of controllability was to switch the operator to a combat or safe position from the control panel of the target sensor. Control could be via a command radio or wired line. Guided mines allowed their troops to penetrate themselves or to be selectively triggered on command.
According to the type of target sensor, mines are: push action (triggered when the sensor is pressed by a machine or person), pull action (mine is triggered when the wire sensor is pulled); Rupture effect (triggered when the integrity of a thin wire of low strength is violated);
magnetic (triggered by the impact on the machine's magnetic field sensor), oblique (triggered when the antenna (rod) on the machine body deviates from the vertical position) and seismic (triggered by shock, floor vibration). Various combinations of target sensors are possible and it is not necessary that activation of the target sensor cause a mine explosion. Actuation of a target sensor can have the task of activating the second stage sensor. Usually, the gradual use of sensors aims to conserve the resources of the main target sensor or power supply. There were target sensors with a variety of elements. Such a sensor only triggers a mine on the second or subsequent impact of the target on the mine.
A mine can have not one, but two or three target sensors, and each of them can trigger the mine independently of the others.
Depending on when the mines are brought into a combat position, they are divided into two main groups: those that are brought into a combat position immediately after the safety blocking devices are removed; after removing the safety blocking devices, brought into a combat position after a certain period of time (from 2 minutes to 72 hours).
In terms of retrievability and neutralization, mines are divided into: retrievable, neutralized (a mine can be removed from a combat platoon and then removed); recoverable not harmless (a mine can be removed and then detonated without causing damage or in a safe place, it is impossible to neutralize); not removable not removable (an explosion occurs when attempting to remove; such a mine is blown up on the spot or the non-removable elements are individually neutralized).
Mines may or may not have a self-destruct system. Self-destruction provides for the creation of a mine explosion or the transfer of the fuse to a safe position after a certain period of time or when certain conditions occur (certain temperature, humidity, radio signal, wire signal).
The self-neutralization system enables the fuse to be moved into a safe position after a certain period of time or under certain conditions (certain temperature, humidity, radio signal, cable signal).
A distinction is made between mines according to the installation method: manually installed by soldiers by pioneers, by means of mechanization (tracked and pulled mine spreaders) or remote dismantling (missile, aviation, artillery systems). As a rule, most mines placed by mechanization can be placed manually, and vice versa. Remote mining mines are typically only used with this type of delivery and installation.
Mines are serial and self-made, the latter can be made from grenades, air bombs and similar ammunition, from explosive charges and various harmful elements. You could have a directed and circular sector. Directional mines were placed on the paths of the enemy, covering their positions and approaches to targets. They were considered very handy for organizing booby traps.
In the following, the properties, equipment and use of some types of mines will be considered in more detail.
Anti-tank mine intended to destroy or deactivate tanks and other armored vehicles of the enemy. Excellent anti-track (destroy the tracks, the wheel and thereby deprive the tank of mobility), anti-soil (break through the bottom of the tank and cause a fire in it, detonation of ammunition, failure of the transmission or engine , Death or injury to crew members), anti-board (breakthrough of the side of the tank and cause fire, detonation of ammunition, failure of the transmission or engine, death or injury to crew members) and anti-roof mines (impact on the tank from above ).
Anti-personnel mines designed to destroy or incapacitate enemy personnel. As a rule, these mines cannot cause significant damage to enemy tanks, armored vehicles, and vehicles. The maximum is to damage the car wheel, trim, glass and radiator. Mines were placed in groups and individual mines as part of anti-personnel or combined minefields, covering the approach to their positions and targets, the withdrawal of their units, or blocking the path of movement behind the enemy, shackling his maneuver or forcing him into one Move "fire bag" anti-tank mines used as traps or means of detonating land mines, and so on.
Anti-transportation Mines should destroy or disable enemy vehicles moving on transportation routes (roads, railways, parking lots, runways and platforms, airport taxis). You could also disable both unarmored and armored vehicles. These mines are not intended to destroy or injure personnel, although damage to vehicles very often results in the destruction of personnel at the same time.
The characteristics of the device of anti-vehicle mines made it possible to use many of them as multi-purpose mines. Usually as object mines, i.e. mines that explode after a certain predetermined time or are exploded by the operator via a command line or a radio link from the control panel. Often magnetic mines were used as mines that were attached to an object (car, ship, tank) with magnets.
Anti-amphibian The mine was installed underwater in the coastal zone of reservoirs to combat floating military equipment and dropships. Destruction or injury to personnel for these types of mines is a by-product of mine triggering.
object Mines should destroy or deactivate, damage various fixed or mobile enemy targets. Destruction or incapacity for work of staff has usually been a temporary, but not an accidental, task of object mines. In some cases, the destruction or damage to the object was carried out with the aim of causing maximum losses both in personnel and in combat and other equipment of the enemy. The mines were only installed manually.
signal Mines are not intended to destroy or damage anyone or anything. Your task is to reveal the presence of the enemy in a certain place, determine him and draw the attention of your units to that place. In terms of size, characteristics and methods of installation, signal mines are located near anti-personnel mines.
Mine signals are as follows: sound (when triggered, they make loud noises that can be heard at a considerable distance); Light (when triggered, they emit bright flashes of light or a bright light burns for a certain time, or a mine throws up flares of light (stars); smoke (when triggered, a cloud of colored smoke forms); combined (sound) and light , sometimes smoke); Radio signal (sending a detection signal to the control panel. Signal mines did not have explosives, so did self-destruct systems (self-neutralization). All signal mines are usually transmitted to a combat position immediately after the safety blocking devices are removed
Booby traps (surprises) intends to deactivate or destroy enemy personnel, equipment, weapons and facilities; Creating an atmosphere of nervousness, fear in the enemy (mino fear); Withdrawal of his or her desire to use local or abandoned household (trophy) items, premises, communications facilities, cars, appliances, forts, trophy weapons and ammunition, and other items; Suppression of enemy work to neutralize other types of mines, demining areas or objects. Typically, booby-trapped mines were triggered when the enemy tried to use household items, premises, communication equipment, vehicles, gadgets, forts, captured weapons, ammunition and other items. Demining the site, objects, neutralization of mines of a different type. Such mines were divided into two main types: non-provocative (triggered when an attempt is made to use an object, defuse a mine of a different type, etc.); provocative (due to their behavior they caused the enemy to take actions that would result in a mine explosion. The types of target sensors are diverse and are determined by the design features of each specific sample of booby traps. The main method of installation is manual. The use of booby traps was from The use of mines by their own troops has been carefully camouflaged (including by their own military personnel), and their use by the enemy has been advertised and exaggerated in every possible way The time when mining can begin (otherwise there may be losses by your own troops); second, it is usually impossible to later determine the effectiveness of the mining and the degree of damage to the enemy; third, a significant part of this has Mine not enemy pay ate, but inflicted defeat on local residents, which in some cases is inappropriate; Fourth, most mines are suitable for use in settlements, premises and facilities. The mines used - surprises during the Second World War - could not have any noticeable influence on the course of the battle, on the containment of the enemy or on significant losses. Usually, when the enemy used them after several detonations, they would quickly identify the types of surprise mines and avoid being hit by these mines in the future. These mines can make it extremely difficult to use local items, equipment, abandoned weapons, and premises.
To the group special mines included those that cannot be more or less clearly assigned to any of the above points. They are designed to harm the enemy in a certain way. The most common were: under-ice (to destroy the ice cover of bodies of water to prevent enemy troops from crossing the ice); Anti-minefields (perform the protective task of ordinary minefields, mine groups and individual mines. They are triggered when the mine detection fields of the mine detectors (magnetic, high frequency) are exposed to the sensor;); buoyant (thrown into the river) upstream and explodes on contact with a bridge, dam, sluice or floating vehicle.
Mining - the process of laying mines in order to inflict losses on the enemy, complicates its maneuvering, sabotage. Mines could be used in several ways: installing individual mines, including booby traps, creating minefields. Minefields were usually arranged so that the troops who built them had a chance to see the minefield completely and shoot through it to prevent the enemy from making passes. Minefields were used in both field and permanent fortifications, often in combination with wire and other barriers. They were characterized by dimensions along the front and in depth, the number of rows of mines, the distance between the rows and mines in the rows, the consumption of mines per 1 km, the likelihood of hitting manpower and military equipment.
Groups of mines (individual mines) were installed on roads, detours, fords, gates, mountain paths, in hollows, excavations and in settlements. Minefields could only consist of anti-personnel or tank mines, or they could be mixed. In anti-tank minefields, mines were installed in three to four rows with a spacing between rows of 20 to 40 m and between mines in a row of 4 to 5.5 m for anti-track and 9 to 12 m for anti-ground mines . Their consumption per 1 km of minefield was 750-1000 or 300-400 pieces. Anti-personnel mine fields were built from highly explosive mines and fragment mines. They could be installed in front of anti-tank minefields, in front of non-explosive obstacles, or in combination with them and in areas inaccessible to the action of mechanized troops. At the front, minefields ranged from tens to hundreds of meters and at depths from 10 to 15 meters or more. Minefields can consist of 2-4 or more rows with a distance between rows of more than 5 m, and between mines in a row for high-explosive mines - at least 1 m. The consumption per 1 km of minefield is 2-3 thousand logs. Individual mines were often used by all kinds of sabotage groups and partisans, and were installed in the abandoned settlements by retreating troops. During the war, railroad tracks, objects (buildings) and areas (minefields) were dismantled.
Under mine clearance understood the reverse process of mining. A mine detector was primarily used to detect mines - a device that emits waves of a certain spectrum and gives a pioneer a signal when the nature of the reflected waves changes. To make it more difficult to find mines during World War II, mines with a glass or wooden body were used. In this regard, specially trained animals with a keen sense of smell - service dogs and even rats - have been used to recognize them.
Most mines consisted of three main elements - an explosive charge, a fuse, and a body. In mines, explosives, which are sensitive to detonation, were mainly used for various purposes. This included organic chemistry products: TNT, Tetryl, RDX, PETN and others, as well as cheap ammonium nitrate explosives. Pyrotechnic compositions have been used in signal and fire mines. According to the principle of action, depending on the time of their operation, fuses are divided into contact, which requires direct contact with the object, and non-contact - immediate and delayed action. The fuse was used to trigger the detonation of the cargo directly and could be part of the fuse or be inserted separately into the mine - if it was installed.
Mine explosion damage is usually combined, caused by several factors at the same time, but two are distinguished as the main factors - fragmentation and high explosive damage. The high-explosive effect consists in hitting the target with glowing high-speed explosive products - at close range and then by overpressure in front and the high-speed pressure of the shock wave. A splinter weighing only 0.13 to 0.15 grams at a speed of 1,150 to 1,250 m / s was considered fatal.
Considering the development and production of technical ammunition, especially mines, in the context of the countries, the following can be stated. Mine weapons developed mainly in Germany, Finland and the USSR. It should be noted the high level of safety of mines and detonators in Germany and the USSR, although their design was often primitive. At the same time, British, American, Italian and French mines and detonators with high manufacturability of the structures required extremely careful handling and qualified training of the pioneers. Miners' safety when dealing with mines in Japan has not been considered at all.
The range of British mine weapons in the field of anti-tank and anti-personnel mines is very small. At the same time, the variety of perfect, sophisticated fuses is quite large, which indicates that the British Army is focused on mining and sabotage activities. The British didn't start mass producing mines until 1940. A total of 19.6 million mines were produced in the war years, including 15.8 million anti-tank mines and 3.7 million anti-personnel mines.
Germany was distinguished by the production of sufficiently advanced and technological mines, explosive charges and detonators. The range of mines produced was quite large and multifunctional. At the same time, both the availability of materials and labor and their functionality were taken into account in their manufacture. In Germany, 76.6 million mines of various types were produced in the war years. Attention should also be paid to the literacy of the use of mines by the German troops.
In the USSR, in the manufacture of mines, the main focus was on simplicity and reliability combined with cheapness and mass production. In terms of the range of the mines, the USSR even surpassed Germany. A separate direction in the development of mines in the USSR were mini-sabotage instructions: anti-vehicle, object and radio control. During the war years, the USSR produced 66.5 million mines of all types, including: 24.8 million anti-tank and 40.4 million anti-tank.
The United States did not pay due attention to mine weapons and did not begin to develop them until the war began. In France, mines were practically not produced. In Japan, due to the lack of mass production of technical mines, a sufficient number of components of sabotage explosives, incendiary weapons and booby traps have been manufactured to carry out sabotage behind enemy lines.
According to estimates by experts, the total number of mines released by all countries during the war exceeded 200 million.
Artillery ammunition includes grenades fired from cannons and howitzers, mortar mines and rockets.
It is very problematic to classify in any way the artillery ammunition that was used on the front lines during the war.
Their most common classification is by caliber, purpose, and design.
USSR: 20, 23, 37, 45, 57, 76, 86 (uniform), 100, 107, 122, 130, 152, 203 mm, etc. (separate charging)
However, there are cartridges for the DShK-12.7 mm machine gun, the bullet of which is a highly explosive fragmentation projectile with a shock effect. Even a 7.62mm rifle bullet (called the sighting fire) PBZ arr. 1932 is essentially a very dangerous explosive projectile.
Germany and allies: 20, 37, 47, 50, 75, 88, 105, 150, 170, 210, 211, 238, 240, 280, 305, 420 mm etc.
Depending on the intended use, artillery ammunition can be divided into: high-explosive, fragmenting, high-explosive fragmented, armor-piercing, armor-burning (cumulative), concrete-piercing arson, shot, splinters, special purpose (smoke, lighting), tracer, propaganda, chemical, etc.)
It is extremely difficult to divide ammunition according to the nationality of the belligerents. When arming the USSR, British, American ammunition delivered as part of Lend-Lease, supplies of the Tsarist army were used, the trophy of which was suitable in caliber. The Wehrmacht and the Allies used ammunition from all European countries that were also captured.
Near Spasskaya Polist, on a German howitzer position of 105 mm, a warehouse (field) was found in which German grenades, Yugoslav grenades, fuses - manufactured by the Czech factory "Skoda".
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