What is a monomer origin
Big Bang HTL 3, textbook
Organic technology and ecology (3rd year, 6th semester) 131 Kunststoffe 13 The 21st century is considered the age of plastics. In our time, it seems, we are dependent on “plastic” from babies to old age. The plastics can be found in baby diapers as well as in toys, cars and our clothes. Packaging and medical equipment contain plastics. They have enriched our lives and have become an indispensable part of our everyday lives - but they also create problems: namely when they are no longer needed. 13.1 What are plastics? Structure and meaning of plastics In this chapter a short history of plastics is told. We learn why they are also called polymers and why they are so popular. Humans have always used many types of materials. The first materials were of natural origin, such as wood, leather, etc. Over time, people began to purposefully change natural materials in order to produce new ones. The American inventor C HARLES G OODYEAR discovered in 1839 that rubber changes when heated and through reaction with sulfur. In doing so, he invented the first semi-synthetic polymer, namely rubber. Real plastics are fully synthetic polymers. Fully synthetic means that they do not occur in nature, but are made by humans. (F1) Polymers are giant molecules that are created by connecting many small units (the monomers) to one another. A monomer is therefore the individual part of a polymer. A polymer is a chain of monomers. What is “artificial” about a plastic? When were the first real plastics made? Why are plastics so popular as a material? Think about what the following substances were made from in the past and find a reason why they are made from plastic today: ruler, shoe sole, bucket, school bag, bottle, shopping basket, watering can, sheer F1 F2 F3 Fig. 13.1: Monomers and polymers Pioneering research The German chemist H ERMANN S TAUDIN - GER carried out the tests. He also invented the term macromolecule for molecules with more than 1000 atoms. You could call him the father of polymer chemistry. In 1953 he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on plastics. Fully synthetic plastics are made from the respective monomers through various chemical linkage reactions. The polymer polyethene is made from the monomer ethene, the polymer polypropene from the monomer propene, etc. The advantages of plastics as materials are manifold: They are - easy to process (easy to color, easy to shape ...) - cheap - resistant to water and many Chemicals, especially acids and alkalis, also resistant to the effects of weather and decomposition by microorganisms → can become a disadvantage after the end of the period of use - light, so have a low density - basically non-toxic - little conductive for electricity and heat (insulating material !) In addition, these properties are at least partially controllable through production. Hardness, softening temperature, density, elasticity can be “adjusted” during the manufacturing process. This means that you can produce the right plastic for every type of use. That is why plastics are also known as “made-to-measure materials”. (F3) A BB. 13.2: H ERMANN S TAUDINGER, "father" of plastics chemistry Structure and importance of plastics Explain the advantages of plastics over other materials. B. on the Internet also disadvantages of plastics. L 13.1 F4 A1 C1 CS UD For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv
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