Why is Bavaria so particularistic

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Kurt Eisner Prime Minister of the Free State
Despite the election of Kurt Eisner as Prime Minister of the Free State of Bavaria by a provisional National Council made up of workers 'and soldiers' councils, the state's previous structures remained in place, e.g. the administration based on the politically conservative civil servants or the inherited ownership structures. For his political goals, in particular the connection between direct democracy - the council system - and indirect democracy - parliamentarism, he could not win majorities.

In the elections to the state parliament on January 12, 1919, Eisner's USPD suffered a significant defeat. On February 21, 1919 he was shot by Count Anton Arco-Valley on the way to the state parliament, where he wanted to declare his resignation. Thereupon a member of the revolutionary workers' council carried out an attack on the leader of the majority socialists, Erich Auer, who was seriously injured.

Soviet Republic
The cabinet under the newly elected Prime Minister Johannes Hoffmann, a Social Democrat, did not succeed in reducing the increasing polarization between the parliamentary parties and local workers 'and soldiers' councils. On the contrary, the situation came to a head to such an extent that the Hoffmann cabinet was forced to go to Bamberg to discuss the constitution. The resulting power vacuum was used by a group around the philosopher Gustav Landauer and the writers Ernst Toller and Erich Mühsam to proclaim the "Soviet Republic of Bavaria" on the night of April 6th, 1919. Six days later, Eugen Leviné, a member of the Communist Party, took over the leadership of the Soviet Republic. Under the impression of the news that the "Red Army", the troops of the Soviet Republic, had murdered ten hostages, the conquest of Munich began on May 1, 1919 by the Prussian and Württemberg troops requested by Prime Minister Hoffmann and the Freikorps, whose reign of terror lasted for almost weeks should cost a thousand people their lives.

Bamberg Constitution
The Hoffmann government now formally ruled Bavaria. It also passed the Bavarian Constitution on August 14, 1919, which came into force on September 15, 1919, called the "Bamberg Constitution" after the place where it was created. In the same year, a referendum took place in the Coburg area of ​​the former Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which formed the basis for the unification of Coburg with Bavaria on July 1, 1920.

Political reality was lastingly determined by monarchical and right-wing radical forces. They were based on conservative efforts by bourgeois circles, which were reinforced by strictly anti-communist and anti-Semitic propaganda. In addition, there were particularist tendencies directed against the Reich.

This political constellation led to two serious conflicts in the initial phase of the Weimar Republic: the Kapp Putsch on March 13, 1920 and the Hitler Putsch on November 8, 1923.