Why do you think Filipinos are conservatives
Is there a Filipino culture?
Is there a Filipino culture in a country whose name - in contrast to its Southeast Asian neighbors - is of colonial origin? What could be the national bond that unites the more than 7,000 islands with their different peoples and different languages, religious practices and eating habits?
The amalgamation of Chinese, Arab, Indian, Spanish and US-American influences during their eventful history has taught the Filipinos to appreciate diversity as an enrichment of their life patterns and to sway to the rhythm of rapid or slow social changes. Its (resistance) power has rightly been compared to that of a bamboo. Filipinos have remained what they always have been: exceptionally adaptable life artists who master the positive and negative elements of their history despite great misery with a zest for life, wit and serenity.
Peoples and languages
Filipino society is characterized by a diversity of peoples and languages (approximately 80 languages and dialects). 12 percent of the Filipinos / as can be attributed to the indigenous populations. There are a total of 60 different indigenous population groups.
The ethnic groups living in the northern Cordillera region are grouped under the collective term Igorot, which includes the Ifugao, Bontoc, Kalinga, Kankanai and Ibaloi, among others.
The short, curly-haired and dark-skinned Negritos or Aetas are considered indigenous people. The Mangyan, who have a pre-colonial script, live in the mountainous regions of the island of Mindoro, south of Manila.
The so-called lowland Christians are divided - also linguistically - into the following main groups: Ilocano, Pampangueno, Pangasinan, Tagalog, Bicolano, Cebuano, Hiligaynon (Ilonggo) and Waray.
The Muslim-Filipinos or Moroz make up a large part of the population of the south. Its main groups include the Tausug, Maranao, Maguindanao, Yakan and the Badjao, who call themselves Sama Di Laut, people of the sea.
The 18 non-Muslim ethnic groups in Mindanao - collectively known as Lumad - comprise 1.8 million people. The National Commission for Culture and Arts in Mindanao maintains a website specially tailored to the needs of Lumad. The indigenous peoples are confronted with numerous problems - above all with forced displacement as a result of the implementation of large infrastructure projects and / or the settlement of mining and mining companies such as Lepanto.
The national language is Filipino and is essentially based on Tagalog. Bisaya or Cebuano is widespread in the central and southern part of the country and is the lingua franca, especially in the south of the archipelago. English is understood almost everywhere and is common in education, business, finance, and the media.
Some common terms in Filipino:
- Magandang araw po. > Good afternoon.
- Kumusta po kayo? > How are you?
- Mabuti po naman. > I'm fine.
- Maraming Salamat. > Thank you very much.
- Cain tayo! > Let's eat!
- Talaga? > Seriously?
- Paalam. > Goodbye.
If you want to learn Filipino, Tagalog, Cebuano or Tausug, the following websites are recommended:
Education means a lot to Filipinos; it enables a better job, especially abroad, or a way out of poverty. The Department of Education describes the historical background of the Filipino education system. The country is one of the countries with the lowest illiteracy rate in the world.
The education system is designed according to the US school system and consists of state primary and secondary schools and almost exclusively private or church-run colleges and universities. These are usually attended by children from high-income groups and have a high quality of education. But some of these private institutions have a bad reputation and are considered "diploma mills".
The education system is divided into three areas:
- Primary or elementary school (6 years)
- High School (Secondary 4 years)
- Colleges (colleges and universities 4-5 years)
In addition, there are a large number of technical training schools (vocational training schools) for students who for various reasons cannot afford to attend a college or university. In recent times, especially training centers for nurses or other (medical) nursing staff have sprung up like mushrooms across the country after a warm downpour. Graduates hope for a lucrative job abroad from the successful completion of such facilities. In the spring of 2013, a bilateral agreement on the recruitment of Filipino specialists in Germany was signed in Manila and Berlin, which, among other things, provides for the deployment of 500 Filipino nurses in German care facilities and hospitals.
The country's well-known colleges / universities include:
Migration, transnational families, OFWs, Balikbayan
The first arrivals from the empire of over 7,000 islands in the South China and West Philippine Sea were, as far as the Federal Republic is concerned, medical personnel. Families were separated and their relatives suddenly found themselves scattered all over the world. They all drove out into the wide world to contribute to improving the living conditions for themselves and those at home through higher earning opportunities than at home. Soon the magic word "transnational families" made the rounds. This refers to mothers who work as nannies or domestic help in Europe, fathers who go to sea internationally, brothers who tour Japan in music bands, and sisters and aunts who toil in Taiwan's factories or work in hospitals and retirement homes in the USA perform.
It is noticeable that this group of people are people who received an above-average (school) education in the Philippines and often held prominent positions in the industries (e.g. computer industry, school system) in which they previously worked. For example, it is nothing special to meet Filipinos at Rome's Termini train station in the busy Sunday morning hours who used to work as headmasters or programmers in the cities and provinces.
Many Filipino migrants and contract workers who earn their living in countries in the Middle East work under precarious conditions and are often exposed to sexual harassment and / or overt violence. There have been and are always cases where Filipinas who acted in self-defense and killed the tormentor were sentenced to death and executed.
In the positive case, the "Balikbayan", the interim returnees as well as the Filipinos and Filipinas returning to their homeland after long years of life and work abroad enjoy an evening of relative prosperity - with their own and extended (extended) families.
Other recommended sources about migration and migrants are:
Gender or The Super Filipinas
The Philippines are often described as a nation of strong women who directly or indirectly determine family life, manage businesses, direct government agencies or manage large plantations. Although women (have to) define themselves in the milieu of a male-dominated post-colonial Asian Catholic society, Filipinas live in a culture that is strongly shaped by community spirit, in which the (extended) family enjoys the highest social priority.
To assert oneself within the framework of strong hierarchical structures, pronounced class antagonisms and class-specific differences, religious justifications and a nation facing the challenges of globalization and to fight for dignity and respect remains a constant challenge for Filipinas. Compared to their Southeast Asian sisters, however - according to Wikipedia - they enjoy a higher degree of legal equality.
EXCURSION - Recalling Gabriela S.
In April 1984, almost a year after the murder of Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, the father of President "Noynoy", who has been in office since summer 2010, over 10,000 women defied the henchmen of the Marcos regime, marched on Manila's streets and demonstrated for their rights. At that time there were 42 women's organizations that had come together nationwide to form a political alliance that has since written the following central concerns on its flags:
- Fight against foreign interference
- Fight against landlessness
- Fight against political oppression
- Fight against prostitution and trafficking in women
- Fight against militarism
- Fight against patriarchal structures in society
Today more than 250 organizations and institutions belong to this network, whose members - primarily (skilled) workers, farmers, trade unionists, housewives, urban poor, academics, students and nuns - form an important political bloc nationwide and whose voices are unmistakable.
Since Filipinos appreciate acronyms and they are quickly found, it was astonishing at best to astonished or ignorant men and comrades when the name of this politically militant network of committed women's rights activists and feminists was inspired by a person who saw the light of day more than 250 years ago - Maria Josefa Gabriela Carino Silang, Gabriela Silang for short, born on March 19, 1731 in Santa, a town in the province of Ilocos Sur. In memory of and in remembrance of this courageous woman, the women's network founded in 1984 gave itself the name GABRIELA. The word stands for General Assembly Binding Women for Reforms, Integrity, Equality, Leadership, and Action and - loosely translated - means something like General Assembly of Women, connected in the spirit of reform, integrity, equality, leadership and energy.
Historians consider Gabriela Silang to be the first Filipina to lead a revolt against the hated occupiers during the Spanish colonial rule. As an active member of the rebels under Diego Silang, her husband, she took over the leadership of the group for four months after his death, which had taken up arms for the liberation of the province of Ilocos from Spanish tyranny, until they too were captured and the just 32-year-old hanged in the city of Vigan on September 20, 1763. Gabriela Silang was considered a fearless and bold woman who also mastered the art of riding.
In 2003, GABRIELA founded the GABRIELA Women's Party, which one year later won almost 465,000 votes (3.65 percent) nationwide in the parliamentary elections and won a seat in Congress with Liza Maza. In 2010 the party received over one million votes (3.31 percent) and by 2013 its members Luzviminda C. Ilagan and Emerenciana "Emmi" A. De Jesus have two congressmen. Even after the May 2013 elections, GABRIELA is present in the lower house with its own MPs.
In the USA, GABRIELA maintains an offshoot or sister network, the GABRIELA Network (GABNet), which in recent years has been particularly committed to the protection of human rights and the numerous extrajudicial executions during the tenure of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001-2010) Denounced in several major US cities.
Role and status as well as the status and role of the Filipinas provide a deeper insight into the world of ideas and life of the Filipinas.
The UN High Commissioner for Refugees helps victims of sexual violence.
General and traditional medicine
General information on the health status of Filipinos, related laws and public pronouncements can be found on the homepage of the Department of Health (DOH). The health insurance company provides information about health care, while the "Handbook Philippines" (see reading tips) devotes several articles to the topic.
Here is a list of the diseases Filipinos suffer most from. Over the years, there has been an oppressive constant: Seven out of ten Filipinos will not see a doctor until they die. Most of them cannot afford it financially. And the others prefer to fall back on their familiar "hilot", who as traditional healers Faith Healers mostly enjoy a great reputation in rural communities, or alternative healing techniques. In this context, it should be pointed out that the deeply religious, but at the same time superstitious Filipinos see no contradiction in viewing inexplicable (disease) phenomena as controlled by external media, even "kulam" (witchcraft power), to defend themselves against them recommend protective "anting-anting".
As early as 1997, the government passed the law establishing the Philippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative Health Care, the Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act of 1997 TAMA. It says, among other things:
"It is hereby declared the policy of the State to improve the quality and delivery of health care services to the Filipino people through the development of traditional and alternative health care and its integration into the national health care delivery system. It shall also be the policy of the State to seek a legally workable basis by which indigenous societies would own their knowledge of traditional medicine. When such knowledge is used by outsiders, the indigenous societies can require the permitted users to acknowledge its source and can demand a share of any financial return that may come from its authorized commercial use. "
PITAHC also propagates the use of scientifically founded herbal medicine, which numerous NGOs active in the health sector such as Hain have been practicing for a long time together with the use of acupuncture, acupressure and Chinese massage.
Around 90,000 registered doctors work in the Philippine health system, but their number is decreasing because they are looking for work abroad (if necessary as nurses) and want to settle there. There are around 2,400 hospitals nationwide, around 1,700 of which are publicly owned. While over 60 percent of the population has statutory health insurance through the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (with basic coverage only), barely half of the population has access to health care.
In the past few years, only one percent of the national budget was earmarked for the public health system - nothing was changed in terms of funding in 2018, and budget items for education and health are even to be reduced. The state hospitals are mostly underfunded and in a condition that leaves a lot to be desired. Wealthy people and foreigners alike prefer privately managed and technically well-equipped hospitals. Medication and treatment costs have to be paid by the patient themselves; down payments before the start of treatment are common. It is not uncommon for seriously ill patients to literally die in front of the hospital gates because they cannot meet such a requirement.
Insurance system & HIV / AIDS
The Social Security System has existed since 1947 and currently has around 27 million members, but by far does not guarantee adequate protection for the lion's share of the population.
Contraception (methods) and HIV / AIDS are extremely sensitive issues in a society that is essentially Roman Catholic and whose church hierarchy prohibits the use of condoms and other contraceptives due to religious reservations and due to its very conservative attitude - and its priests, however, harsh words preach from the pulpit. However, there are approaches in the AIDS Surveillance and Education Project in the Philippines to work towards HIV / AIDS prevention - also in the hinterland.
In the past few years, two reports attracted particular attention. On the one hand, it is more and more common for people - including children and adolescents - to sell organs (mainly kidneys) to wealthy Filipinos and / or wealthy foreigners and to be betrayed even in such bleak cases. On the other hand, over 40 health workers and doctors, Health Workers Abducted, have been arrested and detained by state security forces on the flimsy pretext for being believed to be sympathizers of the Communist Party (CPP) and its guerrillas, the New People's Army.
Even during the Marcos dictatorship, medical personnel were repeatedly targeted by state surveillance and repression when they advocated community-oriented basic medicine for the needs of the weak, poor and marginalized in society. Several doctors had to pay for this commitment with their lives.
The Covid-19 pandemic in the Philippines
According to the WHO, the first recorded Covid-19 case in the Philippines was a Chinese citizen at the end of January 2020. However, the danger of an impending pandemic was downplayed by the Duterte regime and the coronavirus was able to spread - promoted by the flow of goods on the world market, the international one Tourism and the fact that numerous Filipinos have to seek their livelihood overseas and accordingly get around the globe - continued to spread until more and more Covid-19 infections were found by mid-March 2020. With the local spread of the new virus, a radical policy shift took place: Instead of trivialization, authoritarian measures were now consistently on the rulers' agenda.
The tough measures taken by the government - because they came too late and are essentially not aimed at eradicating the virus, but solely at expanding power - were unable to prevent the virus from spreading. With the consequence that the Philippines quickly developed into the corona hotspot in Southeast Asia. Official information and numbers on infections, deaths and recoveries, which should be treated with caution, are provided by the Philippine Ministry of Health's coronavirus website.
As in the rest of the world, the coronavirus is causing very different levels of concern among the population and government in the Philippines. The population worries about their health, tries to avoid contagion and ekes out their existence under the often miserable conditions of the pandemic. The government, on the other hand, is concerned about the functioning of the nation and tries to limit the damage to the population by the virus to a level that affects the country's economic activity as little as possible. One measure that illustrates this contradiction was the so-called “community quarantine” from mid-March to mid-April in the capital region of Manila.
Since these regionally limited curfews had no effect and the virus continued to spread across the main island of Luzon, a three-month nationwide "lockdown" followed, which sentenced all under 18-year-olds and all senior citizens to permanent house arrest, while the rest of the population fit for work was only allowed to leave one's own four walls to work and shop. These harsh measures hit the poorest part of the population in particular, as it made it impossible for them to laboriously earn a living as a street vendor, while the cost of living rose sharply. Apart from the fact that the living and living conditions of most people are anyway not conducive to health and are extremely meager. The German-Philippine Friends e.V. in Düsseldorf provide critical documentation of the Philippine corona policy. The situation in the Philippines is traced in 9 parts so far: Part I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and XI.
The dual use of authoritarian anti-corona measures
While the curfews against the poorest were enforced in a draconian way, the damage caused by the "lockdown" should be as minimal as possible for the international business location Philippines. Call centers and other internationally sought-after sectors of Filipino services remained open and were only marginally restricted by hygiene regulations. Not to mention high-ranking personalities from politics and business as well as the police and the military, whose demonstrative non-compliance with hygiene regulations was trivialized as a minor offense.
The relaxation of the anti-corona measures after the world's longest "lockdown" allow the population to go about their own business during the day - it is mandatory to wear a mask in public! - and to move at least partially freely. However, there is still a night curfew, the public is still characterized by the presence of heavily armed military, the state of emergency has not been lifted and freedom of expression and freedom of the press are not guaranteed. The measures to contain the coronavirus - like the "War on Drugs" before it - serve the Duterte government as a pretext to hunt down opposition members, "undesirable people", "street rabble" and other parts of society that are perceived as deviant or disturbing. The regime proves once again that implemented emergency measures are no longer withdrawn, but are used permanently against the population. A description of this life in the New Normal is provided by an article in the iz3w.
During the nearly 350 years of Spanish colonial times, the country turned into the stronghold of Catholicism in Asia. About 84 percent of Filipinos are Roman Catholic, nine percent belong to Protestant churches.
Muslim Filipinos make up about five percent of the population and live mainly in the south. There are also Buddhists and - among the various mountain peoples - followers of natural religions.
Foreign visitors will remember the confectioner-style churches. They belong to the Iglesiya ni Cristo, which was founded in 1914 by Felix Manalo. Another religious community that was baptized in protest against Spanish Catholicism and the dominance of the Vatican is the Iglesiya Filipina Indepedente, created in 1902 by Gregorio Aglipay and Isabelo delos Reyes. Their services are held in the respective regional languages, their priests are allowed to marry.
So-called charismatic and evangelical movements such as the Born Again Christians and El Shaddai, which are headed by eloquent preachers, have recently become very popular. Since their members represent a considerable potential electorate, these religious groups are often courted by politicians.
Popular piety (the country's best-known contemporary author, Francisco Sionil José, who turned 90 in December 2014, prefers to speak of "superstition") is also reflected everywhere in everyday life. Filipinos cross themselves whenever they drive past a church. Jeepneys are decorated with small altars and images of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Even shops are often adorned with a baby Jesus statue, hung with sampaguita, the jasmine-like national flower, and sweets. After all, Nino is also considered the patron of good business. And: who doesn't want that? Once again, all of this - religiosity, devotional goods and superstition - was revealed in a brilliant mixture on the occasion of Pope Francis' visit to the archipelago in mid-January 2015. Between six and seven million people are said to have been present at his final service, which was celebrated in the open air - a record that could hardly be surpassed in this regard!
Whenever and whenever you have the time, you should definitely visit - mostly full - churches and get an idea of the religiosity of the Filipinos for yourself. Of course, you will also meet countless devotional merchants who are selling their saints, blessed and other extraordinary things, sometimes in flashy colors; They are not able to make a living (subsistence) even with faith alone. Filipinos also keep in touch with their favorite saints online worldwide.
Additional resources on religion and belief (s) can be found at the following links:
Culture, art, etiquette
Art and culture
The Kulay Diwa Gallery has compiled a list of contemporary Filipino artists. Important links to art and culture in the country include:
Manners & values
A child hears the word "Mano" - and what does it do? It takes an adult's hand and brings it to its forehead. Every child learns from an early age this respectful greeting of older people, especially in close family and relatives. Respecting the elderly is considered the first virtue that a child soaks in with its mother's milk. Then it learns to address the older siblings and older people in the neighborhood appropriately. Honoring father and mother is paramount in Filipino society. Committing an outrage inevitably affects the entire (extended) family.
Utang na loob (debt of gratitude) permeates all pores of social relationships. Someone who has been done a favor understands that they have entered into a moral debt that will eventually have to be paid.
Filipinos / Filipinas are group oriented. Their relationships in groups (of friends) shape life. They seek advice and consolation in the group, in which individual successes are also shared. Those who are successful but poor in friends are considered a pitiful, unhappy creature.
Filipino hospitality has been particularly emphasized and appreciated. Often, and this has not changed to this day, this hospitality borders on masochism. Fiipinos make their only bed available to guests as a matter of course and pull out all the stops to give them the best possible stay.
Pasalubong (souvenirs) for family members, friends and neighbors form a piece of social propriety - regardless of whether you do it with pleasure and out of pure joy or out of a sense of duty.
Interpersonal relationships are shaped by "hiya" - a mixture of decency, embarrassment and shame. A "decent" Filipino tries to deal with others in a non-confrontational, conflict-free and as consensual manner as possible. Criticism is taken personally. Sensitivity is therefore just as necessary on a personal level as in business matters. Above all, practice makes perfect!
Film and literature
The NCCA, the Film Academy of the Philippines and the Inquirer article "Filipino cinema" provide information on the development of the film scene and the film industry in the country. One of the outstanding filmmakers in the Philippines was director Lino Brocka, who died in an accident in 1991 and whose films were also shown on German television (ARD) towards the end of the Marcos dictatorship in the mid-1980s. It is mostly the problems of the poor in society and the social milieus of the marginalized that Brocka approached sensitively.
In recent years, Filipino films - including at the annual Berlinale - have always been good for a surprise. That was also the case in 2014, when Lav Diaz received an excellent review in the February issue of the Berlin Film Journal for his four-hour film epic "Norte - Hangganan ng Kasaysayan" ("Norte - The End of History"). This is one of the director's "shorter" films; he has also produced works that last up to eight hours. In August, the same filmmaker won the Golden Leopard at last year's Locarno International Film Festival with a five and a half hour opus about the leaden years during the Marcos dictatorship.
Famas Awards are something like the Filipino version of the Academy Awards in Hollywood, USA. Most Filipino films are soap operas or trigger-happy macho films in which the hyperactive heroes shoot their way through the alleys and gutters of the metropolis of Manila or other major cities in the country. Former President Joseph E. Estrada (1998-2001), who became the country's first president to end his term prematurely due to abuse of office and corruption, was a downright celluloid darling of the masses. Obviously his problem (probably also that of some of his ardent followers and admirers) was not being able to differentiate between political reality and grueling fiction after so many years of success. But in the summer of 2013 this political standing figure made a comeback par excellence; since then the man has served as mayor of Manila.
The most important contemporary writer and author is F. Sionil José, who turned 90 at the beginning of December 2014 - lives in Manila's Ermita district and also runs a well-stocked bookstore called "La Solidaridad" on Padre Faura Street, which is located under is very popular with many artists and intellectuals in the country. José's works have been translated into nearly thirty languages - including his books "Scenes from Manila" and "Gagamba - The Spider Man", which are now published by Horlemann Verlag, now based in Angermünde, into German. A review of his latest opus "The Feet of Juan Bacnang" penned by Amadis Ma. Guerrero appeared in Manila's Philippine Daily Inquirer in late February 2014.
The most prestigious literary prize in the country is the Carlos Palanca Awards. The Panitikan website provides information about and portrays young contemporary Filipino authors.
F as in Filipino Food
Show me what you eat and I'll tell you who you are! The Filipino is sometimes described humorously as someone who looks like an Asian, has a Spanish name and an American nickname, speaks English and eats Chinese - actually a splendid mixture!
Filipino cuisine is a culinary potpourri to which - in a positive sense - Chinese, Spanish and North American chefs have contributed. The former enriched Filipino cuisine primarily with noodle dishes. Rice is a staple food, and Adobo is the undisputed national dish. The ingredients are vinegar, salt, soy sauce and garlic en masse.
Merienda are small snacks that are taken very seriously. They consist of fried or boiled bananas, kamote (sweet potatoes), all kinds of (sticky) rice cakes, barbecues and fish balls.
Buko juice, the juice of the young coconut, as well as mango and calamansi juice, which is pressed from small lemon-like fruits, are recommended for quenching thirst. Kalamansi, slowly served with two or three ice cubes with the "tanduay" (rhum) in the brief twilight ... this corresponds to a snatched corner of blissful eternity! Incurable beer aficionados, however, will probably cling to the bottlenecks of the "San Miguel" and quickly fill a table with empty bottles in group feasts.
It really does exist - the "baptism of fire" in the kitchen: "balut", cooked, hatched duck eggs. Some Balut aficionados said that this product is best eaten in the dark for the first time - with a gentle piano sound in the background.
You have to listen to music - so here are some videos with music to indulge in such pleasures. In addition, information on traditional music from the Philippines and Pinoy radio stations from the Philippines.
Traditional sports include stick fighting Arnis, Escrima, KalSports in the Philippines and Traditional Games.
Sabong Cockfight and the Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation PAGCOR provide insights into other types of entertainment that are by no means always mistaken for sports.
Basketball and baseball are as popular in the country as soccer is in Europe. In both of these sports, Filipinos are capable of great things. But their natural size prevents them - at least in basketball - from reaching for medals. Much to the chagrin of the admirers of this sport, who would like to see that - as in boxing - there are different weight and size classes. Here is a very special tip: Whoever feels called by you to do good and at the same time remain indelibly anchored in the memories of lively village kids, get up and donate a basketball hoop including a ball! There remains a consolation for the time being: At the last World Cup in Spain, the Filipino basketball team managed to jump from 34th to 31st place in the international FIBA ranking.
Speaking of boxes. There is no doubt Manny Pacquiao, known as "Pac-Man", a living boxing icon in his homeland. Wolfgang Bethge provides a brief portrait of him. The international boxing experts agree that "Pac-Man" or "Pacman" is a gifted boxer. Never before in the history of boxing "sports" was one and the same person able to win ten world championship titles in a total of eight weight classes!
"Pac-Man" has mutated into a multi-tasking messiah in his home country: folk hero, benefactor, show and film star, deeply devout and regular churchgoer, (karaoke) singer, TV presenter, politician and (richest) Congressman. "Pac-Man" is also the great leveler; Big and small, poor and rich, crooks and godly - they are all the same and deeply united when Manny has (had) another glamorous appearance in Las Vegas. In moments like this, peace, harmony, philanthropy and obedience to the law return everywhere. In order not to miss anything, criminals would never dream of climbing over prison walls. Judges, public prosecutors, traditional politicians and hard-nosed commissaries who commit wrongful judgments, mistakes or military actions against the people for the protection and benefit of corrupt elites - they all stop as long as the "Pac-Man" fists fly, pause and judge at least during this Don't do any further damage.
However, the "Pac-Man" got bitterly angry in his fight on the evening of December 8, 2012 - also in Las Vegas - against his Mexican challenger Juan Manuel Marquez.A carelessness in the sixth lap cost Pacquiao, who had been ahead on points up until then, the victory. The Mexican won a knockout victory and clouded the pre-Christmas mood on both sides of the Pacific. But just at the height of the greatest disaster that ever struck the Philippines in the form of the super typhoon "Haiyan" (local name "Yolanda"), the lively "Pac-Man" made a furious comeback - a veritable comfort of soul for his compatriots in tormented ones Times! In the expansive Venetian amusement and hotel complex in Macau, he defeated the challenger Brandon Rios from the USA on November 24, 2013 in a 12 round fight clearly on points and successfully defended his welterweight title. And exactly one year later, on November 23, 2014, "Pac-Man" secured this title again in the same location by confidently defeating the American Chris Algieri.
The Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger (edition of May 2/3, 2015, p. 18) was the title of its story about the long-awaited showdown between "Pac-Man" and the American Floyd Mayweather . "In 2014, according to Forbes, Mayweather was the highest-paid athlete in the world with an annual income of $ 105 million", according to the Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger, "he is not only extremely rich, he also stages his wealth on the Internet (...) But Mayweather is too a damn good boxer. An excellent defensive strategist, unbeaten in 47 fights and the best pound-for-pound boxer in the world across all weight classes. " On the night of May 2nd to 3rd, 2015 Mayweather emerged victorious from the fight in Las Vegas. "Pac-Man" lost clearly on points and, to the annoyance of many fans, had to admit after the fight that they weren't quite fit and had shoulder problems. In any case, the fight in Las Vegas washed the proud record income of 300 million dollars into the coffers of the organizers.
A revenge against Mayweather won't (probably ?!) after "Pac-Man" resigned immediately after his last and victorious fight against the American challenger Timothy Bradley on the night of April 9th to 10th, 2016 Boxing announced. From now on he will dedicate himself to the fight against poverty in his home country and is therefore aiming for a senatorial position. And who would have seriously doubted such a victory: In the general election a month later, on May 9, 2016, Pacquiao was easily elected one of the nation's 24 senators. A euphoric victory celebration, however, was not the order of the day; many would have liked to see the outstanding athlete in the boxing ring instead of having to prove himself on the political-diplomatic stage.
And since the bustling "Pac-Man" did not want to completely shed his boxing gloves, he often leaves the Senate floor in favor of the boxing ring. His fight on the night of July 1st, 2017 against the Australian Jeff Horn in the so-called "Battle of Brisbane"" Pacquiao lost on points. But this time, too, boxing aficionados spoke of "shifting" and saw "Pac-Man" as the real winner. A fight for revenge has already been announced. Which will keep admirers and skeptics of the little boxer with the big punch in suspense for the time being. But just one year later, the "Pac-Man" triumphs impressively over his Argentinian challenger Lucas Matthysse in Malaysia's metropolis Kuala Lumpur.
And then? A turn of the year 2018/19 made to measure! On December 17th, 2018, 40 years old, the "Pac-Man" treated himself a somewhat belated birthday present of a special kind. On the night of January 19th to 20th, 2019, he brilliantly defended his WBA welterweight title in Las Vegas against the American Adrien Broner, who was eleven years his junior. In the MGM Grand Hotel arena, Broner was ultimately lucky to have managed the full distance over twelve laps. The unanimous winner Pacquiao said shortly after the fight: "I really don't think my career is over. I already proved that in my last fight against Lucas Matthysse. And today I showed it again - at the age of 40. "
What is what remains The ardent wish to lure the undefeated (but now resigned) superstar Floyd Mayweather off the defensive and challenge him to a fight for revenge. Mayweather, who was in Las Vegas for promotional purposes and watched PacMan's fight against Broner as a spectator, visited his former opponent in the dressing room. "He greeted me and wished me luck," said Pacquiao. Was that really the last word?
In the wake of the soccer world championships in South Africa in 2010 and Brazil in 2014, people in the distant Philippines also discovered joy and lust for this ball sport. The Philippine national soccer team - called "Azkals", which means "street dog" - led a shadowy existence in the FIFA world rankings for a long time and until 2006 had to be content with the not exactly flattering 195th place. All of that changed step by step when the German coach Hans Michael Weiß took over the reins at the beginning of 2011. The team - according to the newspaper "Neues Deutschland" the most international national team in the world - succeeded in making the leap forward; In the summer of 2012, the "Azkals" were already ranked 149th on the FIFA world rankings - ahead of neighboring countries Indonesia (151st) and Malaysia (154th). Since February 2014, the new coach of the "Azkals", Thomas Dooley, has been working on advancing the team and at the same time rejuvenating it. At the beginning of September 2014, however, the team lost in the Peace Cup final in front of their home crowd against the kickers from Myanmar. The sociologist, internationally known critic of globalization and alternative Nobel Prize winner, Walden Bello, won completely different, unimagined aspects of last year's World Cup in Brazil due to the team spirit that is particularly required in this sport.
Last but not least, something "exotic" - is it because of climate change ?! At the Winter Olympics in February 2014 in Sochi, Russia, a Southeast Asian athlete actually competed in the men's figure skater discipline - the only 17-year-old Michael Christian Martinez. Even tough sports aficionados stayed up in the tropics until late at night to admire his artistic leaps. To the surprise of his astonished compatriots, the young talent landed in 19th place out of 24 professionals. It will be interesting to see the - possibly miraculous - career of this man, who should easily contest three major international events of this kind!
Christian Martinez also took part in the Olympic Games in 2018 - this time in PyeongChang.
Information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure
The Philippines have an ICT infrastructure that is typical of developing countries: landline telephony and wired (broadband) Internet are not widespread. According to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), there were around four million landline connections and around four million broadband Internet connections in 2017. Measured against the population of around 106 million, the country had a landline and cable Internet rate of less than four percent.
The situation is completely different with cell phone connections: There the Philippines have around 115 million cell phone connections. In purely mathematical terms, all Filipinos have at least one cell phone connection. The World Data Atlas offers further statistics and data on the topic of ICT in the Philippines.
This inadequately developed national ICT infrastructure, but also the limited number of connections to the submarine cables of the major Internet carriers, mean that Internet speeds in the Philippines are among the slowest in the world. According to Speedtest.net, in April 2019 the island nation was ranked 104th out of 138 for mobile Internet access and 108th out of 172 for wired Internet access. This puts the Philippines in one of the last places in Southeast Asia in terms of Internet speed. The average download speed in April 2019 was 14.73 Mbps (mobile) and 18.66 Mbps (wired) in the Philippines. In contrast, the global average was 26.96 Mbps (mobile) and 58.66 Mbps (wired). This shows that the country has a lot of catching up to do, which President Duterte would like to implement with a national plan to expand the broadband network.
Despite this poor ICT infrastructure, the Philippines has one of the strongest and most dynamic online communities in the world. Filipinos are very internet and especially social media savvy. As in other Southeast Asian countries, modern information and communication technologies - especially social networks - have quickly become an important part of culture and society. In the first 2000s, the Filipinos were considered the world champions of SMS sending, today they can be called Facebook world champions.
The great importance of social media for Filipinos
In 2014 Time magazine named Manila the world capital of selfies. The basis for this championship title is an evaluation of selfies posted on Instagram.
Of the approximately 106 million Filipinos, around 67 million have regular access to the Internet. 62 of the 67 million Internet users in the country have a Facebook account and use it regularly - although most Filipinos also use other social media platforms.
The social media platforms YouTube, Twitter, Pinterest, Reddit, Instagram, StumbleUpon, Tumblr and LinkedIn are particularly popular among Filipinos. Social media offers can also be found among the ten most visited Filipino websites. The ten most visited websites in June 2019 are: Google.com, Youtube.com, Abs-cbn.com, Inquirer.net, Facebook.com, Gmanetwork.com, Yahoo.com, Google.com.ph, Rappler.com and Wikipedia .org.
For Filipinos, socializing is the most important thing they go online for. They maintain friendships online, talk to each other, make new acquaintances, tell each other stories or listen to them, in order to always express the close ties they have with one another. Filipinos can thus meet personal, professional and cultural needs online, build and maintain a meaningful support network in society, and participate in the lives of friends and relatives. Social media play such a prominent role that, according to a study from 2014, Filipinos spend around 53 hours a week online socializing - which is also and precisely due to the fact that many of them work and live overseas and through social media Keeping in touch with family, friends and acquaintances.
This great affinity of the Filipinos for social media, the very strongly Catholic - and thus very similar to the global north - values and the low wage level in the Philippines are perfect conditions for Facebook, Google and Co. a large part of the content moderation in the context of To have Filipinos do business process outsourcing. With an almost holy zeal and with absolutely low pay, especially Filipinas "clean" the social media platforms of the filth that floods the social networks every day in the form of hate, violence and pornography postings. They do the digital dirty work for the unclouded usage relationship of users in Europe and the USA.
For Filipinos, it's not just mobile social apps that play a role. Apps that help them deal with the threat of typhoons and understand other weather risks are also increasingly important. With the help of push messages and SMS, the population can be quickly warned of typhoons and other natural disasters.
Younger Filipinos in particular use the internet and social media. The average age is 24 years and 56 percent of internet users were male in 2014. However, since many Filipinos do not yet have an Internet connection, these numbers are subject to constant change as more and more people gain access to the Internet.
Dutertismo online: A repressive government is also curtailing the freedom of the internet
The freedom of the Internet in the country, like society, suffers from Dutertismo, which is why it can only be described as partially free for this reason. President Rodrigo Duterte, elected in May 2016, announced in his first press conference that corrupt journalists deserved to be murdered. He thus set the signs that are still valid today for freedom of expression and freedom of the press in the Philippines. The monitoring of telephone and Internet communications has also been expanded under President Duterte over the past three years. Duterte also openly admitted several times that members of the opposition were and are being bugged.
The country information portal
The contributions in the country information portal (LIPortal) were supervised by proven country experts until December 2020 in order to give an introduction to one of approx. 80 different countries. The LIPortal thus offered orientation to country information in the WorldWideWeb - many references are still up-to-date.
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