Who is the first king of Jordan
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The official name of Jordan is Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (Arabic: Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashimiyya). Jordan belonged to the Ottoman Empire until 1918 and after the end of the First World War it joined the Kingdom of Syria, which was founded under Emir Faisal from the House of the Hashemites. Great Britain achieved the annexation of Jordan to the British Mandate of Palestine at the San Remo Conference in 1920. In 1923, the emirate of Transjordan, which was under British protectorate, was created through the separation of the areas east of the Jordan. On May 25, 1946 (today's national holiday) the British mandate expired and Transjordan received its full independence.
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan borders Israel and the Palestinian Territories to the west, Syria to the north, Iraq to the northeast, and Saudi Arabia to the southeast and south; in the south it has 27 km of the Red Sea coast with Aqaba as the only port in the country. Jordan has an area of 89,000 square kilometers (a quarter of the area of Germany or the size of Austria). 80% of the country is desert (eastern and southern parts of the country). The mountainous region on the edge of the Jordan Valley has a Mediterranean climate, while the Jordan Valley and the Red Sea coast have a subtropical climate. There is no rainfall from May to September.
Since the death of his father King Hussein in 1999, Jordan's head of state has been King Abdullah II bin al-Hussein. He is married to Queen Rania.
Jordan has 9.5 million inhabitants (99.2% Arabs, of which an estimated 50-65% of Palestinian descent; 0.5% Circassians, 0.1% Armenians, 0.1% Turks, 0.1% Kurds). Jordan has been a host country for Palestinians since 1947/48, most of whom have received Jordanian citizenship or a right of residence. In the course of the Iraq conflict, around 200,000 Iraqis have found acceptance in Jordan. Around 4 million people live in the metropolitan area of the capital Amman; this corresponds to about 42 percent of the total population. Around 93% of the population are Sunni Muslims and 5% are Christians.
The level of human development in Jordan is slowly but surely improving (Jordan ranks 80th in the 2015 Human Development Index). However, there is an increasing concentration of income and wealth. The official unemployment rate in 2015 was 13.6% (hidden unemployment approx. 20-22%). Youth unemployment in particular (according to the World Bank, 28.8% among 15-24 year olds in 2014) poses massive problems for Jordan. According to the latest data from the World Bank, 16% of the population live below the poverty line (monthly per capita income below EUR 46), with a large gap between urban and rural areas. The average life expectancy is 74 years and the literacy rate is over 90%. About 70% of the approx. 9.5 million inhabitants are under 30 years old with an average population growth of 2.6% pa This represents a constant challenge for the educational and social system this cannot fully absorb. Jordan has a gross domestic product of 33.9 billion euros (2015) and a national budget of 10.79 billion euros (2016) with a budget deficit of more than 1.15 billion euros (2016). The GDP per capita in 2015 was around 3,594 euros / year.
Jordan is increasingly an interesting travel destination for tourists from all over the world. The capital Amman is only visited by a few tourists, but offers quite a few interesting sights and enchants with its charm. The city center offers the citadel hill as a sight with building remains from Roman and Omajad times; there is a Roman theater as well as a nymphaeum. Outside Amman, Jerash (approx. 40 km), Mount Nebo (approx. 20 km), Madaba (approx. 20 km) and the Dead Sea (approx. 45 km) are worth a visit. In addition, Petra (250 km) is one of the highlights of Jordan. On the way to the south of the country, places such as Kerak (90 km) and Shaubak (200 km) as well as Wadi Mujib and above all the breathtaking desert valley Wadi Rum are worth seeing. Please also see those
Jordan Tourist Office website
which gives a very good first impression of the country.
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