What is beyond etc

On the meaning of Nietzsche "Beyond good and evil". Nietzsche and morality

Table of Contents

List of abbreviations

A word as a guide

1. On the way to Nietzsche's moral criticism

2. The Relationship of Nietzsche's Writings: A Little Story About His Campaign Against Morality
2.1. You shall!
2.2. Criticism of reasonableness
2.3. The moralization of the world
2.4. The process character of Nietzsche's moral criticism

3. "On the prejudices of the philosophers"
3.1. Philosophers as dogmatists
3.2. Philosophers as deceivers
3.3. "Truth delusion" of the philosophers

4. Slave and master morality
4.1 Etymology the epitome of morality
4.2 slave morality
4.3 Lord morality

5. A personal all too personal résumé

6. Bibliography

List of abbreviations

The reference text to Nietzsche's writings includes individual excerpts, so when quoting from the said source, instead of the respective page number, the number of the treatise and the respective aphorism are given.

Figure not included in this excerpt

Due to the complexity of the secondary literature, the abbreviations for the primary literature were used in this term paper.

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A word as a guide

Beyond Good and Evil is a gentile school, says Nietzsche in his autobiographical work Ecce Homo. His self-esteem for his own book is expressed through his metaphoristic language as “God's idleness”, after his great work “Also Sprach der Zarathustra”:

“(...) it was God himself who, at the end of his day's work, lay down as a snake under the tree of knowledge: he recovered from being God ... He had made everything too beautiful ... The devil is just God's idleness in everyone seventh days (...) "[1]

The language is transformed into Nietzsche's hands on a dangerous hand tool with which he 'A book for everyone and no one‘Or‚a prelude to a philosophy of the future‘Etc. has written. The system with which he arranges the different meanings is not always the same: metaphors, reconstruction, change of optics, quotation marks, etc. can be given as examples. Provided that with Nietzsche the language is more or less often an instrument, but sometimes a purpose. One must, however, note the highly literary form of Nietzsche's texts. The observation of his use of language is the key to Nietzsche's texts, because his terminology plays an important role in the reception of his thinking; through its reception, a concept acquires a central value. Nietzsche's thinking creates figures who, in the intermediate realm of music and language, gain a freedom and inner liveliness that can only succeed in the mutual interpenetration of reflection and art.[2] You also have to listen to this music accompanying his thinking in his sentences. As R. Eden noted that Nietzsche's use of language differs in his works. The way he implements his concept of great politics can, according to Eden, be different genera dicendi assign[3]. Eden's approach to Nietzsche begins with the form of Nietzsche's texts: “On the one hand, there are texts of a journalistic, propagandistic and polemical character. In addition, there are more sophisticated texts whose structure is based on the rules of political-Machiavellian tactics ”.[4] With Nietzsche, language gains a meaning from music, because its own systematics means that something more is done in a playful and easier than in a serious way.[5] As a counterbalance to the fact that the hypocrisy of language always comes up behind it. In this respect one can set up a memory of Spinoza.[6]Omnis determinatio est negatio[7]; every determination is a negation, every definition is a negation. Nietzsche applied this statement in various contexts. The discussion about the relationship between Nietzsche's philosophy and its word fields should be left open here, since the introduction is not the right place to discuss it.

In this term paper, Nietzsche's moral criticism in his work “Beyond Good and Evil” is to be dealt with. In a specific sense, this housework is about Nietzsche's reconstruction of conventional morality. This housework is dedicated to the topics as well as the prejudices of the philosophers and a little history of this reconstruction and master and slave morals. Due to the size of his reconstruction of morality, namely what Nietzsche understands by the epitome of the reconstruction of morality, the subject should be limited to its own. Although his venture includes many stages on his footpath, it begins with the challenge of morality itself. At this point, something should be emphasized: The aim of this housework is therefore by no means to fathom an entire evaluation of Nietzsche's thoughts, but the housework consists in providing a number of elements from his work Beyond Good and Evil, with which the most important points of moral criticism are raised. The main focus here is on certain topics such as the perspective of morality and the reconstruction of morality, the final part of the work is a personal, all-too-personal résumé. In this paper, the 1st, 2nd and 5th, parts of his Work Beyond Good and Evil To be received. The attempt is made to shed light on Nietzsche's concept of morality and to deal with his perspective on morality. In this housework, the moral perspective primarily describes the human instincts. Nietzsche mentions the idea of ​​a perspective of philosophy and thus also a consideration of morality for the first time in the cheerful science. It should also be noted that some contexts, such as the will to power or the eternal return of equality, the above terms have been deliberately excluded. Finally, Nietzsche's typification of morality in terms of master and slave morality is discussed.

Beyond Good and Evil is divided into a preface, nine main pieces and an after-song. In total, the work consists of 296 aphorisms of different lengths. It emerged from plans and studies through which the reconstruction of the given morality that has become historical is performed. This book is the milestone of Nietzsche's thinking, since with it a new phase of his task begins.[8] To ascribe a character to his work that Nietzsche found a new moral is misleading, because he does not try to commit the same mistake that is already made by the older philosophers, namely to establish an absolute moral principle. Nietzsche is a philosopher who “falls out of the frame” of the usual images of the philosopher, the philosophers who draw attention to the fact that they have established morality. Instead, Nietzsche examines the emergence of moral systems. It should also be noted that Nietzsche is no ordinary philosopher who dares to criticize morality. Furthermore, let this book be considered a prelude 'how to philosophize with the hammer ‘ to understand . As a result, this book can and could be interpreted as a pamphlet, a manifesto.

1. On the way to Nietzsche's moral criticism

The first part of this paper is divided into two parts. The first part, "The Relationship of Nietzsche's Writings: A Little Story about His Campaign Against Morality", deals with research into the process character of Nietzsche's moral criticism in his various writings. In this part of the housework, a short history of the term “moral criticism” in Nietzsche's philosophy is presented. It wants to emphasize that the traces of his moral criticism not only in the work Beyond Good and Evil can be tracked. Nietzsche's moral criticism neither begins with this work nor ends with it. From this position it is also difficult to find a single piece of paper in which Nietzsche does not criticize morality. A moral-critical reference to Nietzsche's philosophizing is essentially anchored in a state that is indispensable to himself. On the other hand, it is impossible in a term paper to show all the details of this criticism. If, when looking at Nietzsche's moral criticism, the same amount has not been invested in Nietzsche's writings, the main reason for this is that there are extensive accounts of Nietzsche's moral discussion in his works. They are often difficult to access for outsiders and are therefore not fully taken into account in the following housework.

With Nietzsche there are many definitions of the term “morality” and incidentally “moral criticism” - just not a definitive one. The access of the first part of the housework to Nietzsche's moral criticism is through a combination of his great writings; Dawn, Thus spoke zarathustra, Beyond Good and Evil, On the genealogy of morals certainly. He made the moral-critical assertion that there is an inner contrast between the moral systems of conventional philosophers, especially between their doctrine of the will to establish morality on the one hand, which is characterized as the epitome of rationalism, and the truthfulness of the philosophers and the certainty of dogmatism the other. Under these circumstances, from the perspective of the philosophers who claim that an “impulse to knowledge” is the father of philosophy, it is not only disposable, but even superfluous and harmful.

The second part "On the prejudices of the philosophers: The role of the philosophers between philosophy and morality (or the justification of morality)" deals with the prejudices of the philosophers sharpened by Nietzsche with the "hammer". The second section is devoted to Nietzsche's perspective on morality. Here, above all, Nietzsche's reception has sharpened his understanding of the philosophical rank of traditional philosophers. An independent counterbalance to this is formed by Nietzsche's diverse word fields, in which he wants to open up his eternal criticism of the philosophers, but each with the other careful consideration of his philosophizing. With Nietzsche one finds a hermeneutic philosophy that ties in with French postmodernism, but at the same time differs critically from it. This approach completely hits radical hermeneutics. His radical hermeneutics begins with the sentence:

"There are no moral phenomena at all, only a moral interpretation of phenomena ..."[9]

2. The Relationship of Nietzsche's Writings: A Little Story About His Campaign Against Morality

Before the question of how Nietzsche operates with the concept of the "given" morality that has become historical up to now, an important point of his moral criticism should be pointed out here. Above all, one should not overlook the relationship between Nietzsche's writings, since they are very closely related to one another. You should be in theirs Family resemblances be reconsidered. According to G. Colli, in Beyond Good and Evil central topics from the time of Humanly, all-to-humanly to Cheerful science especially with regard to moral philosophy again taken up and processed[10]. Colli makes a further assertion that some of Nietzsche's statements in Beyond Good and Evil as the clarification and conceptual development of some of the issues discussed in Thus spoke zarathustra were treated symbolically, lyrically or only in hint.[11] In addition, Nietzsche worked on “good” and “bad”, which in J beyond good and evil take place as central issues; where the connection to his writing a year later Genealogy of Morals becomes clear. It would be a futile attempt to get into his work Beyond Good and Evil would seek a definition of these terms because the work places itself outside of this moral world. Nietzsche does not define “good” and “bad” in this work. With its manner the work does indeed enter into the circulation of the concepts, but it does not show itself to the concepts. This point is mostly overlooked by Nietzsche's interpreters. There is an inner affinity between his basic idea of ​​moral criticism and Nietzsche's approach. In other words, the work remains true to its starting point. That transcendental criticism can be shown in his moral criticism. This peculiarity also belongs to the shape of the Beyond Good and Evil. In the later work Ecce Homo However, Nietzsche pleads for the content to be independent of the work:

“In all the pieces, especially in the form, you will find the same arbitrary turning away from the instincts from which a Zarathustra became possible. The refinement in form, on purpose, in the art of silence, is in the foreground, the psychology is handled with its own severity and cruelty - the book lacks any good-natured word "[12]

One could interpret his writings as the links of a great chain if one would think of his great strategy. With its metaphoristic manner, it is clear that one could evaluate his writings from different perspectives, as if they were a large book in which the overall and basic feelings of his philosophizing are shown. In this sense, his great “strategy” denotes what Nietzsche's writings aimed at. What is certain is that his war against morality began a long time ago, in Nietzsche's words, "with this book (Dawn) my campaign against morality begins"[13]. In the preface to Dawn Nietzsche declares the core of his moral criticism:

"(...) I began to investigate and undermine an old trust on which we philosophers have used to build for a few millennia as if on the safest ground - again and again, although every building has collapsed so far: (...)[14]

2.1 You should!

In the first aphorisms of Dawn Nietzsche leads his moral criticism of the authority of custom, in which there is only one moral rule: obedience. It should also be emphasized that the criticism of the imperative “you should!” Of morality that has become historical is clearly seen in all of Nietzsche's writings.

"(...) it required that you observe regulations without thinking of yourself as an individual."[15]

It distances itself from every term “individual”, “arbitrary”, “unpredictable”, “free”, “unfamiliar”. In Nietzsche's later works, the distance between the concept of morality and the individual is sharpened. These terms are accepted as opposites in his way of thinking. Dawn means the emergence of a way of thinking that seeks a humanism - but not the usual one - in order to make the originally chaotic reality immorally manageable with its help. The work begins with the theme that occurs a critique of modernity, namely with the reference to Beyond Good and Evil, closer, trying to capture the immoral experience of the world. Nietzsche does not give convincing answers to the question of how one can experience the world immorally, but he opens up new paths to morality, as well as a morality of affects, which is determined as a unique source of morality. The evaluation of the complexity of life motivates Nietzsche to destroy utilitarian morality. In doing so, he relies on the concept of human action. The interests of his moral criticism, which are linked to certain validities of the theories of action, intensify in his later works. Especially in the Genealogy of Morals Nietzsche shows that a process of action arises from a rationally uncontrollable, i.e. neither causally nor teleologically interpretable connection of feelings of pleasure and discomfort.[16] The answer to the question of what is the moral source of human actions, in other words, how is it possible to morally evaluate human actions? has the same price in Nietzsche's moral criticism: it has none or a certain one. Because of the multifaceted process of human action, Nietzsche's moral analysis is impossible to accept.


[1] EH, p. 43

[2] Reckermann, Alfons, Types of reading of Nietzsche's philosophy, Berlin, 2002, p.177

[3] Ibid. P.263

[4] Ibid. P. 264

[5] Schlechta, Karl, Works in three volumes, first volume; About music, Munich Vienna, 1999, p. 34: "Music can dandle"

[6] The question of how Nietzsche left Spinoza was misappropriated.

[7] Schnepf, Robert, Metaphysics in the first part of Spinoza's ethics, Würzburg: Neumann, 1996, p. 51

[8] EH, 1 (under the title “Beyond Good and Evil”): “After the yes-saying part of my task was solved, it was the turn of the no-saying, no-doing half: the revaluation of the previous values ​​themselves, the big one War."

[9] JGB, 108

[10] JGB, epilogue, p. 421

[11] JGB, epilogue, p. 421

[12] EH, 2 (entitled "Beyond Good and Evil")

[13] EH, 1 (under the title Dawn)

[14] M, preface: II.

[15] M, 9

[16] Reckermann, Alfons, Reading Types of Nietzsche's Philosophy, Berlin, 2002, p.118

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